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Lexile 1280

9TH A • 10TH B • 11TH B • 12TH B

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© Achieve3000 2019

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Ancient Lines in the Sand (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

In Southern Peru, there are enormous geoglyphs (ground drawings) in the desert sand. They were created more than 1,500 years ago, but scientists aren't sure what they were for. What do you think?

Some things should remain a secret. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Daniel Prudek/Shutterstock

This is an aerial view of a monkey geoglyph, one of the many ground drawings in southern Peru known as the Nazca Lines.

NAZCA, Peru (Achieve3000, January 3, 2020). One quality common to the greatest wonders of the ancient world is their magnificent conspicuousness. It's impossible to walk past the pyramids in Egypt and Mexico, for example, or Stonehenge in Great Britain without noticing them—they're right in your face, commanding your attention. And then there are the Nazca Lines in southern Peru.

These ancient drawings of flora, fauna, humanoids, imaginary beings, straight and squiggly lines, and geometric shapes don't rise before you on enormous slabs of stone. They're geoglyphs (literally, "ground drawings") etched into the desert sands of the region. And they're impossible to discern at close range because there are hundreds of them, some as large as the Statue of Liberty and Empire State Building, spread out over nearly 190 square miles (492 square kilometers). Indeed, the best way to see the geoglyphs in their entirety is from the window of an airplane, which is how thousands of tourists view them annually.

Small wonder, then, that these big wonders went unnoticed for nearly 1,500 years, until a Peruvian archaeologist happened upon them in 1927. But it took the advent of commercial air travel in the 1930s to bring them to the fore. And even then, nearly 150 geoglyphs eluded discovery for many years, until 21st-century technology like satellite imagery, drones, and artificial intelligence found them.

And therein lies some of the wonderment of the Nazca Lines: Why did the artisans of a civilization that most likely couldn't have foreseen air travel create etchings that required an airborne perspective? More fundamentally, you might also ask why the geoglyphs were crafted in the first place and what they represent. Researchers certainly have been pondering these questions for about a century, but the answers

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remain largely a mystery. More readily answered, however, are how and when the geoglyphs were made, and by whom, and how something as fleeting as lines in desert sand could've remained intact for so long.

So here's what we do know: Between approximately 500 BCE and 500 CE, the pre-Incan civilization that flourished in the region created the geoglyphs. How? By selectively removing some of the dark, reddish surface rocks that cover the terrain and exposing the lighter-colored desert sand underneath them. The rocks were either removed from the border of the figures (creating a kind of outline) or from the interior, and the contrast of light sand against dark rock is responsible for the furrowed lines and shapes that emerge. Some scientists believe that the geoglyph designers first created scaled-down models to guide them. Others speculate that the designers used ropes attached to wooden posts to maintain the lines' full-scale proportions and geometric precision.

The geoglyphs' astonishing longevity is attributable to the negligible amounts of rain, wind, and erosion in the region, but many of the lines have, understandably, experienced some fading over the years. Beyond this, the only significant existential threat to these ancient masterpieces is posed by human activity, whether by mining, illegal agriculture, or vehicular mishaps.

Many of the geoglyphs are derived from the natural world, with highly stylized depictions of a hummingbird, dog, monkey, llama, spider, and lizard, to name just a few of the animals represented, as well as cactus plants, flowers, and trees. And then there are the geoglyphs that completely defy nature, like the strange anthropoid figure uncovered in 2019, with its multiple sets of eyes, mouths, and appendages. Researchers note that the implication of such oddities is that the Nazca people had a taste for the surreal and the magical as well as the natural.

So what purpose did the geoglyphs serve? The most recent research suggests that the geoglyphs figured into specific rituals for rain and crop fertility. Certain geoglyphs may have denoted where the rituals were being conducted, while others were more like signposts directing travelers to those ceremonial places.

Then again, all of this is speculative, and only one thing remains demonstrably true: The Nazca civilization found a way to draw lines in the ever-shifting sands of time that would last an eternity.

Video credit: Achieve3000 from footage by maxuser/Creatas Video+/Getty Images

Dictionary

advent (noun) the time when something begins or arrives : the first appearance of something anthropoid (adjective) resembling a human being denote (verb) to show, mark, or be a sign of (something)

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

The true meaning of the Nazca Lines, which are found in southern Peru and form images of plants, animals, humanoids, imaginary beings, and straight and squiggly lines etched onto the desert floor, remains open to speculation to this day.

Some of the Nazca Lines defy anything found in nature, such as a geoglyph discovered in 2019 that features multiple sets of eyes, mouths, and appendages, suggesting that its creators had a taste for the surreal and the magical.

There are a number of possible explanations for the Nazca Lines, but the most recent research suggests that some of the geoglyphs were used in specific rituals for rain and crop fertility, while others were used as signposts directing travelers to ceremonial places.

Interest in the Nazca Lines grew with the advent of commercial aviation in the 1930s, but nearly 150 of the geoglyphs managed to elude detection until 21st-century technology like satellite imagery, drones, and artificial intelligence helped find them.

Question 2 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

Some geoglyphs represent animals found in nature, including highly stylized depictions of a hummingbird, dog, monkey, llama, spider, and lizard, to name a few.

The Nazca Lines were created sometime between 500 BCE and 500 CE by a pre-Incan civilization that removed dark red surface rocks to reveal lighter-colored sand below.

Some geoglyphs, which are impossible to discern at close range and cover an expanse of 190 square miles (492 square kilometers), are identifiable from the window of an airplane.

The Nazca Lines obviously formed a kind of ancient agricultural calendar because the people who created them would not go to such trouble for anything but very practical reasons.

Question 3 The Article states:

So here's what we do know: Between approximately 500 BCE and 500 CE, the pre-Incan civilization that flourished in the region created the geoglyphs. How? By selectively removing some of the dark, reddish surface rocks that cover the terrain and exposing the lighter-colored desert sand underneath them. The rocks were either removed from the border of the figures (creating a kind of outline) or from the interior, and the contrast of light sand against dark rock is responsible for the furrowed lines and shapes that emerge. Some scientists believe that the geoglyph designers first created scaled-down models to guide them. Others speculate that the designers used ropes attached to wooden posts to maintain the lines' full-scale proportions and geometric precision.

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Why did the author include this passage?

To explain how a pre-Incan civilization was able to create images on the desert floor that are only discernable from a distance

To describe the most recent evidence that helps to explain what the mysterious lines in the Peruvian desert were actually used for

To show that the civilization that made the Nazca Lines must have possessed technology at least as advanced as that of the Incan people

To point out the fact that the images formed by the Nazca Lines evolved greatly over the course of their development from 500 BCE to 500 CE

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word denote?

dissociate defile designate disperse

Question 5 What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

Peru's Nazca Lines remained completely forgotten until the advent of commercial air travel in the 1930s made them widely known.

The Nazca Lines are as conspicuous as many of the wonders of the ancient world, including the pyramids of Egypt and Mexico and Stonehenge in England.

Geoglyphs mainly served agricultural purposes, with some of the Nazca Lines pointing to the best places to grow crops in the dry region.

Some of the Nazca Lines are now so faded that they cannot even be recognized from the window of an airplane.

Question 6 According to the Article, which of these happened last? This question asks about when events happened. It does not ask where in the Article the events appear. Reread the Article for clues, such as dates.

A civilization created drawings in the desert sand by stripping away the top layer of rocks. A series of lines in the Peruvian desert became well-known after flights passed overhead. A Peruvian archaeologist discovered groups of lines drawn on the desert floor. A geoglyph of a human-like being with many eyes, mouths, and limbs was discovered.

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Question 7 Read this passage from the Article:

The geoglyphs' astonishing longevity is attributable to the negligible amounts of rain, wind, and erosion in the region, but many of the lines have, understandably, experienced some fading over the years. Beyond this, the only significant existential threat to these ancient masterpieces is posed by human activity, whether by mining, illegal agriculture, or vehicular mishaps.

In this passage, the word longevity means __________. an idea that is expressed by a symbol the quality of being physically attractive an area of land that receives little rain the length of time that something lasts

Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that the Nazca Lines might have served more than one purpose?

Many of the geoglyphs are derived from the natural world, with highly stylized depictions of a hummingbird, dog, monkey, llama, spider, and lizard, to name just a few of the animals represented, as well as cactus plants, flowers, and trees.

Small wonder, then, that these big wonders went unnoticed for nearly 1,500 years, until a Peruvian archaeologist happened upon them in 1927. But it took the advent of commercial air travel in the 1930s to bring them to the fore.

The geoglyphs' astonishing longevity is attributable to the negligible amounts of rain, wind, and erosion in the region, but many of the lines have, understandably, experienced some fading over the years.

The most recent research suggests that the geoglyphs figured into specific rituals for rain and crop fertility. Certain geoglyphs may have denoted where the rituals were being conducted, while others were more like signposts directing travelers to those ceremonial places.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Some things should remain a secret.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

List three or more characteristics that make the Nazca Lines an intriguing attraction to visit and/or study in Southern Peru. Explain why some of these characteristics have left researchers with questions. Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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Animated Favorites Get Real (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Moviemakers have started releasing live-action remakes of animated films. The Jungle Book and Beauty and the Beast are two examples. What do you think?

Live-action remakes are more entertaining than the cartoon classics. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Tinseltown/Shutterstock These days, many families flock to theaters to watch live-action remakes of animated movie classics such as

"Aladdin," starring Will Smith. LOS ANGELES, California (Achieve3000, August 20, 2019). Guess what's about to get real, movie fans? Your old animated favorites! That is, if they haven't already. Like the Fairy Godmother waving her magic wand over a pumpkin, movie studios have been bringing new life to animated classics, transforming them—bibbidi-bobbidi-booyah!—into live-action blockbusters. Beauty and the Beast, The Jungle Book, Alice in Wonderland, and Dumbo are just some of the live-action remakes released since 2010. Actors have also stepped into Cinderella's glass slippers, Dora the Explorer's sneakers, and Aladdin's curly-toed kicks, and according to Hollywood buzz, we can expect the reboots to keep on comin'. So what's the big attraction to going live-action? For studios, it's mostly about the math. Ticket prices have gone up, and the Internet and TV have a lot to offer, so it takes something special to get people off the couch and into the megaplex, but with live-action remakes, studios have stumbled upon a winning formula. It starts with stories audiences love and characters who seem like old friends, throw in a few A-listers, add some of modern technology's jaw-dropping special effects, and ka-ching, it all equals box office gold. The Disney live-action remakes of Aladdin, Beauty and the Beast, and Alice in Wonderland each brought in more than a billion bucks worldwide. Meanwhile, Disney's other live-action movies like A Wrinkle in

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Time and Tomorrowland might have scored points for originality but were lucky if they broke even, let alone make some cash. It's partly the power of good ol' nostalgia that makes the formula so lucrative. Plenty of adults who spent their childhoods waltzing around the living room in Belle ball gowns bought tix to 2017's Beauty and the Beast, and millennials who grew up watching Pokémon cartoons were charged up to catch (get it? catch?) Detective Pikachu. Of course, the parents among them likely took their kiddos to the theater. (Hello, next-gen fans!) Treating their golden oldies to a modern makeover also gives studios a chance to make them more inclusive. Diversity plays a starring role in Disney's latest remakes, so more kids are seeing characters on the big screen who look like them. In Aladdin, Egyptian-Canadian actor Mena Massoud plays the lovable hero and African American actor and rapper Will Smith is the wisecracking Genie. And, as just about everybody and their pet crustacean knows, African American singer and actress Halle Bailey landed the part of Ariel in The Little Mermaid. Some moviemakers also see these do-overs as an opportunity to crank up the girl power. The producer of Aladdin, for example, said one reason the reprise was such a big hit was because Jasmine isn't just along for the magic carpet ride. She's a strong character who speaks up and takes a stand. Likewise, the new Mulan doesn't have a fast-talking dragon as her sidekick, but she's a master of kicks, and her sword fighting skills are just as stellar. Like its predecessor, the live-action Mulan tells the story of a young woman who takes her father's place in the Chinese Imperial Army, but this version aims to be more culturally respectful and accurate. Any list of live-action remakes has gotta include the 2019 blockbuster The Lion King, right? Well…it's complicated! The footage was created by artists with computers, not by cameras filming actors or animals (we know, not exactly spoiler alert material). So technically, it isn't live-action, but it all looks so real that some people believe the word animation feels just plain wrong. What do you think? Whatever your take on The Lion King debate, live-action remakes are part of the "Circle of Life" in movies today, and for lots of moviegoers, they offer "A Whole New World" that looks fresh yet feels familiar and fun.

Dictionary

lucrative (adjective) producing money or wealth predecessor (noun) something that comes before something else

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 According to the Article, what is one reason that the new live-action blockbusters are so popular with fans?

Adults who grew up watching animated versions of the movies enjoy the sense of nostalgia that they get from watching the new crop of live-action movies.

The use of expertly trained animals, as seen in The Lion King, thrilled audiences who flocked to theaters to watch the hit live-action remake.

Live-action hits such as A Wrinkle in Time and Tomorrowland were popular because they used the very latest jaw-dropping special effects.

Studios have added entirely new characters to classic animated features that are a hit with today's viewing audience.

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Question 2 What is this Article mainly about?

Not all live-action films are popular with audiences as was shown in Disney's recent films A Wrinkle in Time and Tomorrowland, both of which were lucky to break even at the box office.

Studios have stumbled onto a winning cinematic formula by making live-action remakes of their animated predecessors but with greater diversity and stronger female characters than ever before.

Live-action films such as Beauty and the Beast and Detective Pikachu were popular because they both evoked a sense of nostalgia in adult viewers who grew up watching them in their animated forms.

While the blockbuster remake of the film The Lion King cannot technically be considered live action because the footage was created by artists with computers, its images do appear amazingly lifelike.

Question 3 Which of these statements is contrary to the ideas presented in this Article?

The character of Jasmine, who speaks her mind and makes a stand in the hit Disney film Aladdin, is representative of the stronger female characters seen in the latest crop of live-action remakes of classic animated films.

One of the reasons for the popularity of the recent live-action films is that these movies show a greater degree of diversity than their predecessors and can therefore appeal to a wider audience than ever before.

Parents who grew up enjoying the animated versions of films such as Beauty and the Beast and Aladdin introduce a new generation to the beloved characters by bringing their own children to the live-action remakes.

Live-action movies have proven universally popular among theater-going audiences around the world, as films such as A Wrinkle in Time and Tomorrowland have clearly demonstrated.

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word predecessor?

recipient beneficiary caricature antecedent

Question 5 What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

More people saw the remade version of Aladdin than saw either Beauty and the Beast or Alice in Wonderland.

The onscreen images seen in The Lion King are actually a skillful combination of computer animation and live-action sequences.

The original animated version of Disney's Mulan did not correctly portray some of the events from Chinese history.

The first version of the movie Aladdin was not popular among viewers because it did not show Jasmine as a strong, independent young woman.

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Question 6 The Article states:

So what's the big attraction to going live-action? For studios, it's mostly about the math. Ticket prices have gone up, and the Internet and TV have a lot to offer, so it takes something special to get people off the couch and into the megaplex, but with live-action remakes, studios have stumbled upon a winning formula. It starts with stories audiences love and characters who seem like old friends, throw in a few A-listers, add some of modern technology's jaw-dropping special effects, and ka-ching, it all equals box office gold.

Why did the author include this passage? To show ways in which today's remakes of classic animated films contrast with the original versions of

those films To point out the main reason why studios have chosen to produce remakes of some of the classic animated

films of the past To suggest that studios do not want to invest as much money in the remade versions of classic films as they

did in the originals To explain why the original animated versions of popular Hollywood blockbusters remain popular to this

day

Question 7 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that a movie's popularity can be enhanced when moviegoers can identify with characters in the film?

It's partly the power of good ol' nostalgia that makes the formula so lucrative. Plenty of adults who spent their childhoods waltzing around the living room in Belle ball gowns bought tix to 2017's Beauty and the Beast, and millennials who grew up watching Pokémon cartoons were charged up to catch (get it? catch?) Detective Pikachu. Of course, the parents among them likely took their kiddos to the theater. (Hello, next-gen fans!)

Like the Fairy Godmother waving her magic wand over a pumpkin, movie studios have been bringing new life to animated classics, transforming them—bibbidi-bobbidi-booyah!—into live-action blockbusters. Beauty and the Beast, The Jungle Book, Alice in Wonderland, and Dumbo are just some of the live-action remakes released since 2010. Actors have also stepped into Cinderella's glass slippers, Dora the Explorer's sneakers, and Aladdin's curly-toed kicks, and according to Hollywood buzz, we can expect the reboots to keep on comin'.

Treating their golden oldies to a modern makeover also gives studios a chance to make them more inclusive. Diversity plays a starring role in Disney's latest remakes, so more kids are seeing characters on the big screen who look like them. In Aladdin, Egyptian-Canadian actor Mena Massoud plays the lovable hero and African American actor and rapper Will Smith is the wisecracking Genie. And, as just about everybody and their pet crustacean knows, African American singer and actress Halle Bailey landed the part of Ariel in The Little Mermaid.

Some moviemakers also see these do-overs as an opportunity to crank up the girl power. The producer of Aladdin, for example, said one reason the reprise was such a big hit was because Jasmine isn't just along for the magic carpet ride. She's a strong character who speaks up and takes a stand. Likewise, the new Mulan doesn't have a fast-talking dragon as her sidekick, but she's a master of kicks, and her sword fighting skills are just as stellar.

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Question 8 Look at this passage from the Article:

Treating their golden oldies to a modern makeover also gives studios a chance to make them more inclusive. Diversity plays a starring role in Disney's latest remakes, so more kids are seeing characters on the big screen who look like them.

In this passage, the word inclusive means __________. characterized by a longing for the past and a desire to relive it open to everyone without any limitations having or showing the attributes of a child done or said in a way that makes an audience laugh

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement.

Live-action remakes are more entertaining than the cartoon classics.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Write a summary of today's Article. As you write your summary, complete the following steps:

STEP 1: Read the Article in order to understand the text. STEP 2a: Identify the topic sentence for each paragraph. STEP 2b: Take out any details that are not needed. STEP 2c: Combine the information—in your own words—into a single paragraph. STEP 3: Rethink your summary and the Article. STEP 4: Check your summary. Then double-check it.

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Bubble Tea Is Blowing Up (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

A relatively new drink called "bubble tea" is winning followers across the world. What do you think?

Newer is better. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: jarenwicklund/iStock/Getty Images

A bubble tea shop is a sweet spot to hang out, as well as a good place to get a refreshing drink.

TAIPEI, Taiwan (Achieve3000, May 7, 2019). Bubble tea is a sweet drink that's trendier than avocado toast and cooler than a cucumber-kale smoothie. Originally from Taiwan, it's winning devotees around the world, from Los Angeles to London and Sweden to New Zealand.

To enjoy this treat, you will likely need an extra-wide straw. Why? To slurp up a fun surprise at the bottom of your cup! In addition to tea, flavorings, creamer, and often ice, a bubble tea typically includes some round, chewy goodies. They're most often black tapioca pearls, which are balls of sweetened tapioca, a starchy food made from cassava, the root of a tropical plant. Some people claim these balls of gummy goodness are the "bubbles" that give the drink its name, although others are adamant that the "bubbles" in the name actually refer to the froth that forms on the top of the drink when it's shaken to mix its ingredients.

Tapioca is also used to make desserts, and that probably explains how bubble tea was invented. In the 1980s, tapioca desserts and milk tea, a drink consisting of—you guessed it—tea and milk or creamer, were both popular in Taiwan. Exactly who brewed up the very first bubble tea and where are questions steeped in controversy, as different people and cities have claimed the credit. We can be pretty certain, however, that near the end of that decade, some innovative snacker who was enjoying a milk tea decided to sweeten the deal by adding ice and tapioca pearls to it.

People loved this new amalgam, which was like a drink and a snack in one cup. The invention took off like a soap bubble on a breezy day, and in no time at all, it was a huge hit all over Taiwan. From there, its popularity spread to other places in Asia.

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In the 1990s, bubble tea shops started opening in the United States, especially in areas where there were a lot of Taiwanese immigrants, like Southern California. Now, they're on the rise elsewhere in the U.S. and in many other countries around the world. If there isn't a bubble tea shop near you now, look for one to pop up soon!

When you're in line to order a bubble tea, get ready to face a lot of tough-but-tasty decisions. Part of what people find so appealing about these drinks is that they can customize them to their own tastes, and some shops offer over a hundred flavors and styles. Customers can specify the type of tea, for example, black, green, jasmine, or oolong, the amount of ice, and the precise level of sweetness. There's also a veritable flurry of flavor options. Would you like a traditional favorite, like mango, honeydew, or chocolate pudding, or are you up for something more unusual, like maybe matcha, lavender, or cookie dough? Even when you've conquered these conundrums to design your perfectly personalized bubble tea, there's another important consideration to chew on: toppings! Instead of the traditional black tapioca pearls, you can ask your bubble tea barista to throw in almond jelly, pudding, chia seeds, or red beans, just to name a few options. (Yes, they're called "toppings" even though they typically sink to the bottom of the drink.)

If you're afraid you'll be overwhelmed and worn out after making all these decisions, don't worry. A bubble tea shop can be a great place to chill out while you enjoy your concoction. In fact, for many people, the fun, relaxing atmosphere is as much of a draw as the bubble tea itself. In Southern California, for example, regular customers, especially high school and college students, go to their favorite bubble tea shop to hang out with friends, play games, or study. For these young people, the shops are an important part of their social lives. As Chatchawat Rienkhemaniyom, the former owner of one bubble tea shop in California put it, "[Bubble tea] has become life."

Voice of America contributed to this story. Credit: Voice of America

Dictionary adamant (adjective) very determined and not easily influenced to change one's mind amalgam (noun) a combination or mixture of different parts conundrum (noun) a riddle or a puzzling question veritable (adjective) being truly or very much so

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

Optional additions to bubble tea such as almond jelly, pudding, chia seeds, and red beans are called "toppings" even though they typically sink to the bottom of the drink.

One of the characteristics of bubble tea that people find so appealing is that they can customize the drink to their own tastes, with some shops offering more than a hundred flavors and styles.

Bubble tea, a sweet beverage typically made from tea, milk, ice, and tapioca pearls, originated in Taiwan in the 1980s but has now become popular in the United States and many other places.

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The "bubbles" in bubble tea could refer to balls of sweetened black tapioca, a chewy food made from the root of a tropical plant, or to the froth that forms when the drink is shaken and mixed. Question 2 Which is the closest antonym for the word adamant, as it is used in the Article?

Bemused Bereaved Intractable Acquiescent

Question 3 Look at the events below. Which of these must have happened second? This question asks about when events happened. It does not ask where in the Article the events appear. Look back at the Article for clues, such as dates.

The popularity of bubble tea spread in the United States and other countries around the world. A combination drink and snack made by adding ice and tapioca pearls to a mixture of tea and milk or

cream became a hit in Taiwan. Bubble tea shops opened in parts of the United States where there were large populations of Taiwanese

immigrants. Tapioca, a food derived from the root of a tropical plant, was used to make desserts in Taiwan.

Question 4 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

Exactly who invented bubble tea is a subject of intense controversy because different cities and people have claimed the credit.

Bubble tea toppings like almond jelly and pudding are tastier than toppings like chia seeds and red beans because they are sweeter.

In the 1980s, tapioca desserts and milk tea, a drink made by combining milk with tea, were both popular in Taiwan.

Bubble tea shops are especially popular in Southern California among high school and college students, who visit them to hang out, play games, or even study.

Question 5 Suppose Rosa wants to find out about bubble tea shops in the United States. She would find most of her information __________.

In an encyclopedia, under the entry for "bubble tea" In a food science textbook that gives nutritional data for tapioca In an article entitled "Bubble Tea Takes America by Storm" In a chapter about the United States in a world atlas

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Question 6 The Article states:

Exactly who brewed up the very first bubble tea and where are questions steeped in controversy, as different people and cities have claimed the credit. We can be pretty certain, however, that near the end of that decade, some innovative snacker who was enjoying a milk tea decided to sweeten the deal by adding ice and tapioca pearls to it.

Which would be the closest synonym for the word innovative, as it is used above?

Affable Collaborative Ingenious Idealistic

Question 7 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that bubble tea is now weaving its way into the fabric of American life?

A bubble tea shop can be a great place to chill out while you enjoy your concoction. In fact, for many people, the fun, relaxing atmosphere is as much of a draw as the bubble tea itself. In Southern California, for example, regular customers, especially high school and college students, go to their favorite bubble tea shop to hang out with friends, play games, or study. For these young people, the shops are an important part of their social lives.

Tapioca is also used to make desserts, and that probably explains how bubble tea was invented. In the 1980s, tapioca desserts and milk tea, a drink consisting of—you guessed it—tea and milk or creamer, were both popular in Taiwan. Exactly who brewed up the very first bubble tea and where are questions steeped in controversy, as different people and cities have claimed the credit.

In the 1990s, bubble tea shops started opening in the United States, especially in areas where there were a lot of Taiwanese immigrants, like Southern California.

Customers can specify the type of tea, for example, black, green, jasmine, or oolong, the amount of ice, and the precise level of sweetness. There's also a veritable flurry of flavor options.

Question 8 The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

Ordering a cup of bubble tea can be a baffling experience, especially for those who have never ordered it before.

The rate at which bubble tea shops are opening in the U.S. has slowed compared to the rate at which they were opening in the 1990s.

Bubble tea shops in Southern California encourage patrons to consume their beverages quickly in order to make room for more customers.

Bubble tea shops became popular in Southern California after they had established a widespread following in other parts of the country.

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Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Newer is better.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

What is bubble tea, and what conclusions can you draw about the people who visit bubble tea shops? Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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Cooking Up Native Traditions (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

When Sean Sherman noticed a problem in Native American communities, he came up with a plan to address it. What do you think?

Don't sit back when you see a problem—find ways to fix it yourself. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: AP/Amy Forliti Sean Sherman whips up recipes using traditional Native American ingredients. That's what his catering

business, The Sioux Chef, is known for.

Minneapolis, Minnesota (Achieve3000, January 17, 2020). When he was growing up on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, Sean Sherman's family pantry was packed with canned beans, boxed rice, powdered milk, and jugs of vegetable oil—foods provided by the U.S. government. Sherman, whose family are Oglala Lakota Sioux, would later raise this question about what he considered a curious collection of groceries: Why didn't the foods reflect their culture?

As Sherman immersed himself in the study of world and American cuisine, yet more questions arose: If North America's history begins with Native Americans, why weren't indigenous recipes being more widely used and taught? Where could those recipes even be found? And why aren't there more restaurants serving Native American foods?

Determined to find answers, Sherman met with community elders and spoke with Native American chefs and historians. He learned how his ancestors foraged, grew, hunted, fished, preserved, and prepared their food. He discovered that reclaiming an understanding of Native American foodways meant utilizing local plants and other natural ingredients in the environment. That idea—of making food taste like where it's from—is exactly what inspired Sherman to establish his Minnesota-based catering business, The Sioux

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Chef, as well as his culinary non-profit, NATIFS (North American Traditional Indigenous Food Systems). This chef is on a mission to bring traditional Native American cuisine back to today's world.

But why was it lost in the first place?

Before contact with Europeans, Indigenous Peoples employed traditional agricultural and butchering techniques, developed methods of fermentation and preservation, and ate foods as varied as North America's geography. On the coasts, people ate shellfish; in the deserts, they dined on the nutritious parts of cacti; and across the plains, native wild rice was an important staple.

But as Europeans arrived and colonized the continent, many traditional food sources were destroyed. This included the near extinction of the bison—which was vital to many Native diets—and the destruction of heirloom seeds. To make matters worse, during the late 1800s, the U.S. government sent Native American children to boarding schools, where they were taught cooking and farming methods instead of learning how to forage, farm, and hunt, as their ancestors did. This resulted in the disappearance of years of generational knowledge of Native American food traditions.

Through NATIFS and The Sioux Chef, Sherman is restoring that knowledge and revitalizing Native American culinary traditions and practices, making them accessible to as many communities as possible. His recipes avoid wheat, processed sugar, dairy, beef, pork, chicken, and other ingredients that were introduced by Europeans, in favor of elk, quail, mushrooms, and wild rice. Sherman also helps teach people how to forage indigenous ingredients like wild dandelion, hyssop, cedar, and bergamot. The results have been traditional Native American dishes with a modern flair. Some examples are bison meatballs, deviled duck eggs, corn and seed crusted walleye, and rabbit with cedar, wild rice, cranberry, and maple.

For Sherman, going back to his roots is not just about reconnecting with his culture and heritage. Native American foods also have innumerable health benefits. Many of the processed and canned foods provided to Native American reservations through government-sponsored programs are full of sodium, loaded with bad fats, and brimming with sugar. It's believed these foods have contributed to many of the serious health issues plaguing Native American communities, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.

NATIFS hopes to address this health crisis by re-establishing Native foodways. It provides opportunities for people to learn about Native cuisine and helps tribes to develop culturally unique indigenous restaurants in their own communities.

Although Sherman is one of a small number of chefs serving and promoting traditional Native American ingredients, this might be changing. Native American foods fit perfectly into the growing farm-to-table movement, which promotes local fresh ingredients. Plus, indigenous foods aren't processed and can easily be made vegetarian, gluten-free, or vegan. One thing Native American food is not, contends Sherman, is a trend. It's a way of life. Video credit: The Sioux Chef

Dictionary

indigenous (adjective) produced, living, or existing naturally in a particular region or environment

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 Based on information in the Article, in what way do traditional native cuisine and the food commonly eaten today by Native Americans contrast?

The traditional Native American diet includes canned beans, boxed rice, and vegetable oil. Foods provided to Native Americans today are higher in fats and sodium than traditional native cuisine. The traditional Native American diet includes wheat, sugar, dairy, beef, and pork. Most Native Americans today eat foods such as duck eggs, bison meatballs, and wild rice.

Question 2 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

Sean Sherman wanted to learn what foods were included in the traditional Native American diet, so he met with community elders and Native American chefs and historians to get some answers.

Although the government meant to do the right thing, it didn't really help anyone when it gave free canned beans, boxed rice, powdered milk, and vegetable oil to Native Americans.

In the late 1800s, the government sent Native American children to boarding schools where they were taught cooking and farming methods that were different from their traditional methods.

Sean Sherman teaches people how to forage for traditional food ingredients, such as wild dandelion, hyssop, cedar, and bergamot, to create Native American dishes with a modern flair.

Question 3 The Article states:

For Sherman, going back to his roots is not just about reconnecting with his culture and heritage. Native American foods also have innumerable health benefits. Many of the processed and canned foods provided to Native American reservations through government-sponsored programs are full of sodium, loaded with bad fats, and brimming with sugar. It's believed these foods have contributed to many of the serious health issues plaguing Native American communities, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.

Why did the author include this passage? To describe a way in which the United States government has come to the aid of Native Americans and

achieved beneficial effects To assert that Native Americans are now taking more responsibility for the health issues that currently

plague their communities To suggest that the government has actually contributed to the health problems of some Native Americans To point out that the rate of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer has been falling steadily in Native

American communities

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Question 4 Which two words are the closest synonyms? Only some of these words are used in the Article.

cuisine and memento innumerable and myriad contends and refutes revitalizing and alienating

Question 5 The reader can predict from the Article that __________.

Sean Sherman will teach university-level courses that showcase traditional Native American dishes incorporating modern European ingredients

Sean Sherman will include more canned beans, boxed rice, powdered milk, and vegetable oil in the foods prepared at The Sioux Chef

more and more people will become familiar with the benefits of an indigenous diet through the work of NATIFS and The Sioux Chef

many Native Americans will slowly change over to an all-meat diet that includes ample portions of beef, rabbit, bison, and walleye

Question 6 Which information is not in the Article?

Who Sean Sherman turned to when he wanted to find out more about indigenous diets What harmful effects a diet high in sodium, fat, and sugar can impose on one's health Why it is so difficult to find indigenous ingredients, like hyssop, cedar, and bergamot What foods were commonly found in Sean Sherman's pantry when he was a boy

Question 7 Read this passage from the Article:

Determined to find answers, Sherman met with community elders and spoke with Native American chefs and historians. He learned how his ancestors foraged, grew, hunted, fished, preserved, and prepared their food.

In this passage, the word forage means __________. to plant food crops to raise animals as livestock to cook or prepare a meal to search for something to eat

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Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Sean Sherman actively sought out the help of others when he wanted to learn more about traditional Native American foods?

When he was growing up on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, Sean Sherman's family pantry was packed with canned beans, boxed rice, powdered milk, and jugs of vegetable oil—foods provided by the U.S. government. Sherman, whose family are Oglala Lakota Sioux, would later raise this question about what he considered a curious collection of groceries: Why didn't the foods reflect their culture?

Although Sherman is one of a small number of chefs serving and promoting traditional Native American ingredients, this might be changing. Native American foods fit perfectly into the growing farm-to-table movement, which promotes local fresh ingredients. Plus, indigenous foods aren't processed and can easily be made vegetarian, gluten-free, or vegan. One thing Native American food is not, contends Sherman, is a trend. It's a way of life.

But as Europeans arrived and colonized the continent, many traditional food sources were destroyed. This included near extinction of the bison—which was vital to many Native diets—and the destruction of heirloom seeds. To make matters worse, during the late 1800s, the U.S. government sent Native American children to boarding schools, where they were taught cooking and farming methods instead of learning how to forage, farm, and hunt, as their ancestors did.

Determined to find answers, Sherman met with community elders and spoke with Native American chefs and historians. He learned how his ancestors foraged, grew, hunted, fished, preserved, and prepared their food. He discovered that reclaiming an understanding of Native American foodways meant utilizing local plants and other natural ingredients in the environment.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Don't sit back when you see a problem—find ways to fix it yourself.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Describe something that Sean Sherman did and explain what that tells about him. Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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Defying Gravity (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Simone Biles has been called the greatest gymnast ever. However, she has had some setbacks on her path to success. What do you think?

With enough hard work, anything is possible. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Marijan Murat/dpa via AP Simone Biles shows off her hardware. The gymnast won five gold medals at the 2019 gymnastics world

championships in Stuttgart, Germany.

STUTTGART, Germany (Achieve3000, October 24, 2019). Is 25 a lot? It depends. Twenty-five days of summer vacation are not nearly enough, but 25 gymnastics medals? Now that's a lot of hardware. Just ask Simone Biles. In October 2019, the 22-year-old gymnast not only expertly nailed her landings at the gymnastics world championships, she vaulted her way into the history books, winning her 25th world championship medal, more than any other gymnast in the world. And as if that wasn't enough, two of her moves during the competition were added to the list of signature moves bearing her name. One, now officially dubbed the "Biles," is a mind-boggling double-double dismount from the balance beam involving a double-twisting double backflip. Whew—that's even hard to say!

Biles' performances are so death-defying, you might find yourself thinking gravity's merely a suggestion rather than a natural law as she twists and turns in the air like a leaf in the wind. And yet, her techniques necessitate stupendous physical strength to pull off, so if you've ever witnessed her impeccable execution, you likely won't need much convincing that she's the greatest gymnast in the world. Seems like magic, and yes, natural talent's got a lot to do with it, but chalk it up to good ole fashioned practice and perseverance that skyrocketed this go-getter to the top.

Born on March 14, 1997, in Columbus, Ohio, Biles didn't have a picture-perfect childhood, spending her early years in foster care until 2003, when her grandparents, Ron and Nellie Biles, adopted her. Biles has said her success wouldn't be possible without the support of her adoptive parents, and they can't be missed cheering her on from the bleachers at every competition.

Biles discovered gymnastics during a field trip when she was just 6 years old, and even from a young age, she was resolute in her commitment to the sport. Her mother has said that skipping practice was never an

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option for Biles, who practiced even when she was sick, when, let's face it, most of us would probably crawl back into bed.

But Biles' path to success didn't come without setbacks that threatened to impede her progress. In 2011, she finished 14th at the U.S. Junior Championships, after which the U.S. women's junior national team was named. Thirteen gymnasts made the team, meaning Biles missed by one spot—a defeat she describes in her autobiography, Courage to Soar: A Body in Motion, A Life in Balance, as a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure.

But Biles' disappointment pushed her to work that much harder, and soon enough her tenacity began to pay off. In 2013, she was named as a replacement gymnast when two members of the U.S. Women's Gymnastics Team withdrew due to injuries. Biles was to replace none other than Olympic gold medalist Kyla Ross, so you could say she had big shoes to fill, but then again, gymnasts usually perform barefoot!

Biles continued to compete against Olympic medalists in top-tier meets, where she went toe-to-toe with the best of the best, often capturing the gold. At age 19, she was chosen to lead Team U.S.A at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. By then, many already recognized Biles as the greatest of all time, or GOAT, but it was during her Olympic debut that she became a household name. Along with fellow American, swimmer Katie Ledecky, Biles was the most decorated female athlete at Rio, winning five medals in total and four of them gold!

Indeed, Simone Biles' journey from childhood to the Olympic Games and astonishing, jaw-dropping success as a gymnast is one of overcoming, and she has become an inspiration to young women everywhere as well as innumerable others striving to make their dreams come true. And with Biles gearing up to compete at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, it's safe to say this champion isn't done breaking records and dazzling audiences just yet.

Credit: Video Credit: Team USA

Dictionary dub (verb) to give (someone or something) a name or title impeccable (adjective) free from fault or error impede (verb) to slow the movement, progress, or action of (someone or something) tenacious (adjective) very determined to do something

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

At a recent world championship, Simone Biles performed her trademark move the "Biles," which is a double-double balance beam dismount with a double-twisting double backflip.

With an abundance of physical strength, talent, and persistence, Simone Biles overcame obstacles and adversity to become what many consider to be the greatest gymnast in the world.

Gymnast Simone Biles said in her autobiography that failing to achieve a spot on the 2011 U.S. women's junior national team was a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure on her part.

Simone Biles' childhood was far from perfect, and, in fact, she spent her early years in foster care until her grandparents, Ron and Nellie Biles, adopted her in 2003.

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Question 2 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

After years of hard work, Simone Biles was named as a replacement for Olympic gold medalist Kyla Ross as a member of the U.S. Women's Gymnastics Team in 2013.

In October 2019, Simone Biles made U.S. gymnastics history when she won her 25th world championship medal, more than any other gymnast in the world.

Simone Biles was born in 1997 and didn't have an easy childhood, spending her early years in foster care until she was adopted by her grandparents, Ron and Nellie Biles, in 2003.

Although her hard work and persistence have no doubt contributed to her phenomenal performances, Simone Biles' natural physical ability has been the true key to her success.

Question 3 The Article states:

But Biles' disappointment pushed her to work that much harder, and soon enough her tenacity began to pay off. In 2013, she was named as a replacement gymnast when two members of the U.S. Women's Gymnastics Team withdrew due to injuries. Biles was to replace none other than Olympic gold medalist Kyla Ross, so you could say she had big shoes to fill, but then again, gymnasts usually perform barefoot!

Why did the author include this passage? To point out that a rivalry between gymnasts Simone Biles and Kyla Ross gave Biles the motivation needed

to replace Ross on the United States' national gymnastics team To draw emphasis to the fact that gymnast Simone Biles wouldn't have been able to join the U.S. Women's

Gymnastics Team without a great deal of natural athletic ability To suggest that Simone Biles worked just as hard as Olympic gold medalist Kyla Ross to achieve success

in gymnastics To show how Simone Biles was able to overcome a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure and achieve a

coveted spot on the U.S. Women's Gymnastics Team

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word impede?

allay ascribe facilitate fetter

Question 5 What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

Gymnast Simone Biles competed head-to-head against Olympic gold medalist Kyla Ross and won her own gold medal in doing so.

Simone Biles only missed gymnastics practice as a child when she was very sick, in spite of the fact that her mother often urged her to attend.

Gymnast Simone Biles doesn't give up easily even when faced with what she describes as a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure.

Simone Biles' grandparents, Ron and Nellie Biles, didn't want Simone to become a gymnast at first because they worried about possible injury.

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Question 6 Which information is not in the Article?

Why Simone Biles didn't finish higher than 14th at the 2011 U.S. Junior Championships Why Kyla Ross was replaced by Simone Biles on the U.S. Women's Gymnastic Team in 2013 How Simone Biles' poor showing at the U.S. Junior Championships affected her actions How old Simone Biles was when she was first introduced to the sport of gymnastics

Question 7 Look at this passage from the Article:

Biles discovered gymnastics during a field trip when she was just 6 years old, and even from a young age, she was resolute in her commitment to the sport. Her mother has said that skipping practice was never an option for Biles, who practiced even when she was sick, when, let's face it, most of us would probably crawl back into bed.

In this passage, the word resolute means __________. easily convinced not to do something not showing much emotion or interest having or showing a lot of determination repeatedly changing one's opinions or desires

Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Simone Biles faced difficulties on her road to gymnastic success?

Biles' performances are so amazing, you might find yourself thinking gravity's merely a suggestion rather than a natural law as she twists and turns in the air like a leaf in the wind. And yet, her techniques necessitate stupendous physical strength to pull off, so if you've ever witnessed her impeccable execution, you likely won't need much convincing that she's the greatest gymnast in the world.

In 2011, she finished 14th at the U.S. Junior Championships, after which the U.S. women's junior national team was named. Thirteen gymnasts made the team, meaning Biles missed by one spot—a defeat she describes in her autobiography, Courage to Soar: A Body in Motion, A Life in Balance, as a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure.

By then, many already recognized Biles as the greatest of all time, or GOAT, but it was during her Olympic debut that she became a household name. Along with fellow American, swimmer Katie Ledecky, Biles was the most decorated female athlete at Rio, winning five medals in total and four of them gold!

In October 2019, the 22-year-old gymnast not only expertly nailed her landings at the gymnastics world championships, she vaulted her way into the history books, winning her 25th world championship medal, more than any other gymnast in the world. And as if that wasn't enough, two of her moves during the competition were added to the list of signature moves bearing her name. One, now officially dubbed the "Biles," is a mind-boggling double-double dismount from the balance beam involving a double-twisting double backflip.

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Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. With enough hard work, anything is possible.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Who is Simone Biles and why has she been called the greatest gymnast ever? Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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The Early-Late Debate (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Some people want later start times for middle schools and high schools. These people want start times pushed back until 8 a.m. or later. What do you think?

Middle schools and high schools should start later. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Tom Wang/Shutterstock.com It's hard to learn when you're nodding off at your desk! Should the school day get off to a later start?

SACRAMENTO, California (Achieve3000, October 30, 2019). Ever feel like drifting back to dreamland instead of bouncing out of bed when it's time to get up for school? If you think school shouldn't kick off at the crack o' dawn, you're not alone—lots of researchers and doctors agree, so some groups are pushing for later start times. Advocates say a little extra shut-eye makes a big difference in students' health and academic achievement.

Their efforts are paying off, and there's good news for some teens who like to snooze. In October 2019, the governor of the U.S. state of California approved new legislation regulating the start times of public schools in the state. Beginning in the 2022 academic year, high schools will start at 8:30 a.m. or later, and middle schools will start at 8 a.m. or later.

So middle schoolers and high schoolers will have a chance to get more minutes of California dreamin' in the morning, but what about younger students? The reason the new law doesn't cover elementary schools has a lot to do with circadian rhythms, which might sound like a hip-hop dance craze but actually refers to changes that happen in the body in 24-hour cycles. How much you sleep is important, but when you sleep matters, too.

Research shows that most adolescents need about nine hours of sleep a night, but unlike younger or older people, they typically get their best sleep between 11 p.m. and 8 a.m. So, while a 5-year-old or a 35-year-old might get a great night's rest by hitting the pillow at 7 p.m. and waking up at dawn, most teens' bodies just don't work that way. If they get up at 5 or 6 a.m., they miss out on a lot of top-quality z's.

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What's more, sleep deprivation puts students at risk of developing serious physical and mental health issues, like eating disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular problems, anxiety, and depression. Academic performance is affected, too—it's hard to learn when you're nodding off at your desk!

But not everyone concurs that starting the school day later is a smart way to go. Opponents argue there's no guarantee that students will get more sleep. (A law that mandated bedtimes would be a real nightmare, right?!) Although data suggest students do get more sleep when schools start later, additional research is needed. And schools that start later will finish later, too, leaving students with less time for things like sports, jobs, chores, homework, and—last but not least—fun.

Maybe the biggest roadblock for school districts looking into later start times? Buses! If all schools start near the same time, a district needs to allocate more money to buses and drivers, which is one reason so many high schools start very early. Flipping the schedules so that elementary schools start first has drawbacks, too. Younger kids need more total hours of sleep, and early elementary dismissal times could be hard on working parents. Another option would be shifting all school schedules later, but that could create a whole new set of logistical problems, with elementary schools getting out much later in the day.

California schools will have to work through these and other issues as they implement the new rules in 2022. Educators and government officials in other places will be watching to see how the experiment goes and looking to apply the lessons learned. In fact, several school districts outside California have already implemented start times that meet California's new standards. In Seattle Public Schools, for example, high schools now start no earlier than 8:45 a.m., and an Ohio legislator recently introduced a bill to push back school start times there.

How about you—would you rather start school bright and early or snooze till the sun is high in the sky?

Dictionary

cardiovascular (adjective) of or relating to the heart and blood vessels logistics (noun) the things that must be done to plan and organize a complicated activity or event that involves many people

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What cause and effect relationship is described in this Article?

If the new school start times work well for California, all other states in the U.S. will implement similar changes to their school start times.

If high schools start earlier, students will have energy levels high enough to enable more of them to participate in afterschool activities.

If adolescents are able to sleep later and start the school day at a later time, their school attendance will be more consistent.

If all schools in a district start around the same time, the cost of providing buses and drivers will increase.

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Question 2 What is this Article mainly about?

Some schools in the U.S. are moving to later start times, but there's ongoing debate about whether starting school later will make a difference in students' health and success at school and whether the predicted benefits justify the problems caused by implementing the shift.

A later school start time for adolescents could have such unintended consequences as reduced time for after-school activities and responsibilities, additional transportation expenses for districts, and negative impacts on younger children.

Students who get too little sleep risk physical and mental health issues like diabetes, cardiovascular problems, eating disorders, anxiety, and depression, and may perform worse academically than students who get adequate sleep.

Officials across the country are delaying decisions about starting high schools earlier by observing the outcomes and implications of the shift in California, rather than accepting the risks of experimenting with earlier start times themselves.

Question 3 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

Seattle Public Schools implemented later high school start times that meet California's standards before California did.

Adolescents with later school start times will take advantage of the additional time for sleeping in the morning by staying up later at night.

California middle schools must start their school days no earlier than 8 a.m. beginning in the 2022 academic year.

Changes occur in the body according to the time of day during 24-hour cycles in response to circadian rhythms.

Question 4 Which two words are the closest antonyms? Only some of these words are used in the Article.

advocate and proponent legislation and proclamation cardiovascular and circadian rhythms deprivation and indulgence

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Question 5 Which of these statements is contrary to the ideas presented in the Article?

Schools in places beyond California may consider revising their school schedules based on how the experiment works.

Sleep deprivation can interfere with academic performance and cause serious physical and mental health problems.

The amount of time that adolescents spend sleeping is more important than what time of day they sleep. Additional research is needed to determine whether students do in fact get more sleep when schools have

later start times.

Question 6 The Article states:

What's more, sleep deprivation puts students at risk of developing serious physical and mental health issues, like eating disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular problems, anxiety, and depression. Academic performance is affected, too—it's hard to learn when you're nodding off at your desk!

The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________. identify issues common to all students during adolescence analyze the quality of the research on adolescent sleep

illustrate that sleep is more important to adults than adolescents emphasize how important sleep is for adolescents

Question 7 The Article states:

But not everyone concurs that starting the school day later is a smart way to go. Opponents argue there's no guarantee that students will get more sleep. (A law that mandated bedtimes would be a real nightmare, right?!)

Which is the closest synonym for the word mandated? tolerated ordained abated chided

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Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that it's too soon to tell whether or not students will benefit from a later school start time?

If you think school shouldn't kick off at the crack o' dawn, you're not alone—lots of researchers and doctors agree, so some groups are pushing for later start times. Advocates say a little extra shut-eye makes a big difference in students' health and academic achievement.

Research shows that most adolescents need about nine hours of sleep a night, but unlike younger or older people, they typically get their best sleep between 11 p.m. and 8 a.m. So, while a 5-year-old or a 35-year-old might get a great night's rest by hitting the pillow at 7 p.m. and waking up at dawn, most teens' bodies just don't work that way. If they get up at 5 or 6 a.m., they miss out on a lot of top-quality z's.

What's more, sleep deprivation puts students at risk of developing serious physical and mental health issues, like eating disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular problems, anxiety, and depression. Academic performance is affected, too—it's hard to learn when you're nodding off at your desk!

Opponents argue there's no guarantee that students will get more sleep. (A law that mandated bedtimes would be a real nightmare, right?!) Although data suggest students do get more sleep when schools start later, additional research is needed. And schools that start later will finish later, too, leaving students with less time for things like sports, jobs, chores, homework, and—last but not least—fun.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Middle schools and high schools should start later.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Do you think middle schools and high schools should start later in the day? Why or why not? Cite evidence from the Article to support your response.

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Give Me S'more! (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Many people like to make a dessert called s'mores, which are gooey treats made with marshmallows, chocolate, and graham crackers. What do you think of this well-known saying?

S'mores always leave you beggin' for s'more! • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: kellyvandellen/iStock/Getty Images This melty combination of chocolate, marshmallows, and graham crackers is a s'more.

SAVANNAH, Georgia (Achieve3000, July 18, 2019). S'more, j'adore! Roughly translated from French, that means, "I love a s'more." And who among us has not become instantly enamored with the popular campfire treat the minute it melted in our mouths for the very first time?

If you've never had the opportunity to savor the fresh, gooey confection, now's your chance to craft your very own proper s'more:

1. Break a graham cracker in half and place part of a chocolate bar on one of the halves.2. Put a marshmallow on a stick and hold it over a campfire until it gets slightly charred. (Feel free to

customize the degree of char to suit your personal palate.)3. Use the stick to set the hot marshmallow on the chocolate-graham cracker combo.4. Place the other graham cracker half on top of the marshmallow, creating a sandwich.5. Smoosh everything together, while still warm, and pull out the stick.6. Devour the gooey goodness immediately!A s'more (pronounced "smore" or "sa-MORE") takes the three best elements of dessert-dom—the gooey,the chocolatey, and the crispy—and combines them to create a melted tour de force (or masterpiece, to keepthings less pretentious). Yes, it's messy—everyone knows some of the world's finest culinary treats are theones that dribble down your chin. And yes, it's hands down the best thing you will ever taste. Just one bitein, and you'll think, "I want some more!" Then you'll no doubt ruminate, "Who thought of this?"

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We're reasonably certain it wasn't our ancient ancestors. After all, it's not like they could just dash out to Walmart, hit the baking aisle, and grab a bag of marshmallows, a few bars of chocolate, and a box of graham crackers. Furthermore, in order for s'mores to become available to the masses, some of the key ingredients had to be developed and refined first.

Take the marshmallows. These yummy treats aren't new, but for centuries, they were complicated to create. Not only did marshmallow recipes require eggs, sugar, and the root sap of a plant called the "marsh mallow," each individual treat had to be poured and molded by hand, a process so laborious that marshmallows were a rare luxury reserved for the wealthy. Thankfully, marshmallows no longer have to be crafted by hand, and since they're now prepared using inexpensive ingredients (corn syrup, cornstarch, and gelatin), more people can indulge in marshmallow snacks.

As for the chocolate, many Americans say that a s'more isn't the real deal unless it's made with a Hershey's milk chocolate bar. Ancient chocolate was very different from the modern chocolate many of us know and love. For 3,000 years, Mesoamericans made chocolate from cacao seeds, like we do, but while they may have added other ingredients to the cacao, they didn't add sweetener, and the resulting product was dark, grainy, and somewhat bitter. It wasn't until 1875 that a Swiss candlemaker-turned-chocolatier named Daniel Peter invented a process to mix milk and sugar with chocolate to make what we know as "milk chocolate."

No one's really sure what genius first thought of sticking marshmallows and chocolate between two graham crackers, but it might have been someone associated with the Girl Scouts organization. A 1927 edition of a Girl Scouts manual contains a reference to the delectable treat, calling it "Some More," presumably because that's what you want after eating one.

These days, s'mores are widely known and beloved, but that doesn't mean we've all had the opportunity to sample one. What if you don't have a campfire handy? Don't despair, there are ways to satisfy your craving for s'mores without ever lifting a stick. Many stores sell a slew of s'more-inspired products, from s'more Pop-Tarts to candy bars. Sadly, none of these wannabes manage to capture the essence of an authentic s'more, but don't fret, because in a pinch, you can construct a s'more (or two, or three) and zap it in the microwave for a bit or toast it in the oven. It's not quite the same, but it's still got the goo factor.

S'more deliciousness? Yes, please!

The Associated Press contributed to this story. Video credit: Hilah Cooking

Dictionary

delectable (adjective) tasty; delicious enamored (adjective) captivated by ruminate (verb) to think about; ponder

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 According to the Article, why were marshmallows once considered a rare luxury?

Confectioners reserved marshmallows for their wealthiest patrons because they were made with expensive ingredients like corn syrup and cornstarch.

The process for making marshmallows was complicated and involved pouring and molding each individual marshmallow by hand.

Marshmallow recipes required significant amounts of gelatin and root sap, which for 3,000 years were produced only in Mesoamerica.

Until 1875, only Swiss candlemaker Daniel Peter knew the secret to extracting root sap from the marsh mallow plant.

Question 2 Which of these is most important to include in the summary of the Article?

Daniel Peter, the Swiss chocolatier who invented an important process used in making milk chocolate, was originally a candlemaker.

Mesoamericans were the first people known to make chocolate, harvesting cacao seeds and using them in various dishes.

Making a s'more involves roasting a marshmallow over a fire and sandwiching it and a piece of chocolate between graham crackers, but nobody knows who invented the treat.

Large-scale retail stores today offer a variety of s'more-inspired products, from s'more Pop-Tarts to s'more-flavored candy bars, but none of them capture the essence of a true s'more.

Question 3 Which is the closest antonym for the word delectable, as it is used in the Article?

Disproportionate Antiquated Exotic Unsavory

Question 4 The Article says all of the following except __________.

In 1875, Swiss candlemaker Daniel Peter came up with a way of mixing milk, sugar, and chocolate to create what is now called "milk chocolate."

The name "s'more" probably originated with the idea that the dessert was so tantalizing anyone who tried it would automatically ask for "some more."

Graham crackers, originally created in the late 1800s using coarse whole wheat flour, have become more popular with the addition of molasses and sugar.

Today's marshmallows are produced using lower-cost ingredients such as corn syrup, corn starch, and gelatin, making the sweet treat more affordable.

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Question 5 In the second-to-last paragraph, the author presents information regarding s'more-inspired snacks and microwave cooking processes in order to __________.

Demonstrate the popularity of s'mores among consumers and provide readers with viable alternatives to traditional s'more making

Convince readers to purchase more breakfast snacks and candy bars, and to utilize safer cooking methods than campfires

Analyze the variety of s'more-inspired foods at grocery markets and compare oven-baked s'mores with microwaved s'mores

Describe the inspirational products available for s'more lovers at grocery stores, as well as the inadequacies of campfire cooking

Question 6 Which two words are the closest antonyms? Only some of these words are used in the Article.

Authentic and economical Pretentious and pompous Enamored and disenchanted Laborious and painstaking

Question 7 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that chocolate was not initially cultivated to create desserts?

A s'more (pronounced "smore" or "sa-MORE") takes the three best elements of dessert-dom—the gooey, the chocolatey, and the crispy—and combines them to create a melted tour de force (or masterpiece, to keep things less pretentious).

As for the chocolate, many Americans say that a s'more isn't the real deal unless it's made with a Hershey's milk chocolate bar.

No one's really sure what genius first thought of sticking marshmallows and chocolate between two graham crackers, but it might have been someone associated with the Girl Scouts organization. A 1927 edition of a Girl Scouts manual contains a reference to the delectable treat, calling it "Some More," presumably because that's what you want after eating one.

For 3,000 years, Mesoamericans made chocolate from cacao seeds, like we do, but while they may have added other ingredients to the cacao, they didn't add sweetener, and the resulting product was dark, grainy, and somewhat bitter.

Question 8 The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

Daniel Peter would not have approved of the current ingredients used to make s'mores. Very few Girl Scouts made s'mores during camping trips after their group's 1927 manual came out. S'mores are a relatively quick and easy dessert that even the most inexperienced cooks can make. More Americans prefer s'mores to other chocolate desserts, including Hershey bars.

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Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. S'mores always leave you beggin' for s'more!

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Write a summary of today's Article. As you write your summary, complete the following steps: STEP 1: Read the Article in order to understand the text. STEP 2a: Identify the topic sentence for each paragraph. STEP 2b: Take out any details that are not needed. STEP 2c: Combine the information—in your own words—into a single paragraph. STEP 3: Rethink your summary and the Article. STEP 4: Check your summary. Then double-check it.

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Global Game Fame (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

In 2019, several video games were inducted into the World Video Game Hall of Fame. One game came out in 1976 and two others were released in the 1990s. What do you think?

Older video games are more fun to play. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: The Strong National Museum of Play via AP Since 2015, The Strong National Museum of Play has accepted nominations and selected an elite group of new

entrants for the World Video Game Hall of Fame.

ROCHESTER, New York (Achieve3000, May 10, 2019). Have you ever felt a video game was so good or important that it should be honored with the gamer's equivalent of the Nobel Prize? If so, The Strong National Museum of Play agrees with you!

In 2015, the museum, located in the U.S. state of New York, established the very first World Video Game Hall of Fame. It houses the official collection of the world's most awesome and influential video games in an interactive exhibit called "eGameRevolution" that allows visitors the opportunity to play their way through video game history.

In the four years since the hall of fame began, hundreds of games have been nominated, but only a few have earned a place in these hallowed halls. Among this year's inductees are Colossal Cave Adventure, Super Mario Kart, and the standard computer card game Microsoft Solitaire. On May 2, 2019, these games joined an elite collection of previous winners selected among computer, console, handheld, mobile, and arcade games. The chosen winners are not always the most recent or exciting games but can often be old or archaic games that few people actually play anymore. Colossal Cave Adventure, for instance, is a text-based computer game from 1976 whose imaginary world inspired numerous adventure games that helped launch the commercial computer game industry.

So what does it take for a video game to earn hall-of-famer status? Nominated games are judged on four basic criteria: icon-status, longevity, geographical reach, and influence. To earn a place among the best,

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games must have had a substantial impact on the gaming industry, as well as demonstrated a meaningful contribution to world culture. The games must also have maintained a presence or influence over time. That means games are frequently chosen that may seem obscure or simple to today's high-tech world of virtual reality gamers, but they were once transformational for the industry.

Microsoft Solitaire, for instance, has likely been installed on more than 1 billion computers around the world since 1991. Based on a centuries-old card game, it was both popular and influential, and even taught computer users how to use a new device—the mouse.

"The game proved that sometimes…games can be even more popular in the digital world and demonstrated that a market existed for games that appeal to people of all types," said Jeremy Saucier, assistant vice president for interpretation and electronic games at The Strong.

Super Mario Kart, the first of the Mario Kart racing game series launched back in 1992, is a widely beloved game that also finally made the grade in 2019. Interestingly enough, a trip to the hall of fame exhibit will tell you that the game wasn't actually meant to feature Mario. But once a sketch of the famous plumber in the driver's seat captured everyone's attention, the rest was history. The remaining field of this year's nominees, which was narrowed down to just 12 games, featured cell phone, online, and virtual games. Some of the finalists included Candy Crush Saga, Centipede, and Dance Dance Revolution.

Maybe you play some of these, or maybe your favorite didn't make the cut. If you have strong opinions about which games should be nominated next year, you can get involved! During the first few months of each year, anyone can go online to nominate the games they believe deserve to make it into the World Video Game Hall of Fame. If enough people suggest the same game, it will win a nomination and be sent to The Strong museum committee for consideration.

So which games will get nominated next year? We could say the choice is yours! But even if your nominee doesn't make it, you can still consider attending the award ceremony held annually in Rochester, NY, where attendees play interactive trivia, bands perform video game theme songs, and the world's most globally influential video games finally get their due.

The Associated Press contributed to this story.

Dictionary

hallowed (adjective) sacred or of great fame longevity (noun) how long something lasts

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

In 2019, Candy Crush Saga, Centipede, and Dance Dance Revolution were all finalists for induction into the World Video Game Hall of Fame.

Microsoft Solitaire is an inductee into the World Video Game Hall of Fame that has tremendous geographical reach, having been installed on more than 1 billion computers worldwide.

Every year, The Strong National Museum of Play inducts video games that have had a substantial influence on the gaming industry into its World Video Game Hall of Fame.

Games inducted into the World Video Game Hall of Fame are not always exciting, new games but instead are games that display icon-status, longevity, geographical reach, and influence over time.

Question 2 Which is the closest antonym for the word hallowed, as it is used in the Article?

Abominable Peerless Communal Labyrinthine

Question 3 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

The Strong National Museum of Play in New York welcomed its first inductees into the World Video Game Hall of Fame in 2015.

Colossal Cave Adventure, which debuted in 1976, is a text-based computer game that helped launch the commercial computer game industry.

Video games that offer continuous action such as Super Mario Kart are more enjoyable to play than static-screen games like Microsoft Solitaire.

Each year, anyone can go online to nominate the games they believe should be inducted into the World Video Game Hall of Fame.

Question 4 Based on information in the Article, in what way do Super Mario Kart and Microsoft Solitaire contrast?

Only Super Mario Kart was available for use on personal computers. Only Microsoft Solitaire was designed to teach players a valuable computer skill. Only Microsoft Solitaire gained immediate popularity among gaming enthusiasts. Only Super Mario Kart had a significant influence on the video game industry.

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Question 5 The Article states:

The chosen winners are not always the most recent or exciting games but can often be old or archaic games that few people actually play anymore. Colossal Cave Adventure, for instance, is a text-based computer game from 1976 whose imaginary world inspired numerous games that helped launch the commercial computer game industry.

Which would be the closest antonym for the word archaic, as it is used above? Adverse Contemporary Therapeutic Antiquated

Question 6 The Article states:

So what does it take for a video game to earn hall-of-famer status? Nominated games are judged on four basic criteria: icon-status, longevity, geographical reach, and influence. To earn a place among the best, games must have had a substantial impact on the gaming industry, as well as demonstrated a meaningful contribution to world culture. The games must also have maintained a presence or influence over time. That means games are frequently chosen that may seem obscure or simple to today's high-tech world of virtual reality gamers, but they were once transformational for the industry.

Why did the author include this passage?

To emphasize the fact that a game's popularity is the principal standard for it to be chosen as a finalist for induction into the World Video Game Hall of Fame

To explain to the reader why older, outdated games are often overlooked as inductees into the World Video Game Hall of Fame

To describe The Strong National Museum of Play's standards for selecting inductees into the World Video Game Hall of Fame

To suggest that a video game's icon-status is more important than its longevity for being inducted into the World Video Game Hall of Fame

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Question 7 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that a game should have significantly impacted the gaming industry in order to be inducted into the hall of fame?

Microsoft Solitaire, for instance, has likely been installed on more than 1 billion computers around the world since 1991. Based on a centuries-old card game, it was both popular and influential, and even taught computer users how to use a new device—the mouse.

The remaining field of this year's nominees, which was narrowed down to just 12 games, featured cell phone, online, and virtual games. Some of the finalists included Candy Crush Saga, Centipede, and Dance Dance Revolution.

If you have strong opinions about which games should be nominated next year, you can get involved! During the first few months of each year, anyone can go online to nominate the games they believe deserve to make it into the World Video Game Hall of Fame.

On May 2, 2019, these games joined an elite collection of previous winners selected among computer, console, handheld, mobile, and arcade games.

Question 8 Based on the Article, the reader can predict that __________.

The criteria for selecting inductees into the World Video Game Hall of Fame will change significantly next year.

All of next year's nominees for the World Video Game Hall of Fame will be selected by a team of judges at the Strong National Museum of Play.

Next year's inductees into the World Video Game Hall of Fame may not be the most popular games available at the time.

Colossal Cave Adventure, Super Mario Kart, and Microsoft Solitaire will be among the games nominated for the World Video Game Hall of Fame next year.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Older video games are more fun to play.

• Agree• Disagree

Thought Question

Write a story about visiting the World Video Game Hall of Fame. Which video game did you most want to see and why? Use descriptive words and phrases from the Article in your response.

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Good, Bad, or Ugly? (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

The demand for "perfect" fruits and veggies means a lot of food gets wasted. Now, some companies are selling and shipping "ugly" produce to people's homes. What do you think?

All "ugly" produce should be given away to people in need. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: AP/Joshua McKerrow/The Baltimore Sun Does this carrot have a tail? Well, Imperfect Produce, a company that delivers "ugly" fruits and vegetables to

customers around the country, is selling it anyway.

URBANDALE, Iowa (Achieve3000, May 6, 2019). Brace yourselves, people. This may not be pretty!

We'd like to have a fruitful debate about what to do with the most hideous produce. You know—strawberries that seem to be sprouting arms, apples so bruised they look like they've just staggered out of the boxing ring, tomatoes you're convinced have devil horns, and those mean-mugged potatoes.

Now, be honest. Would you put these peculiar fruits and veggies in your shopping cart? Your answer might be "heck no," and that's why many supermarkets put only the most appealing choices in front of customers.

But ugly fruits deserve love, too, and in recent years, a new crop of "ugly produce" start-ups have blossomed across the U.S. These companies sell those supermarket rejects—and even deliver them right to your door.

The start-ups say they're on a mission to forestall billions of pounds of imperfect produce from needlessly going to waste each year. Because really, a banged-up banana isn't any less tasty in a peanut butter sandwich, so why should it be thrown away?

On the surface, these companies may seem to have the right idea. They even offer deep discounts for their misfit goods, which is great news for customers. But skeptics say ugly produce peddlers—Imperfect Produce, Hungry Harvest, and Misfits Market, to name a few—may only be focused on what's best for their profits.

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The Ugly Truth?

Sink your teeth into this juicy fruit scandal: Critics say that imperfect produce isn't really wasted to the extent that the startups maintain.

Case in point: Many local farmers across the country had already been selling boxes of imperfect produce directly to consumers and farmers markets for years before the ugly produce companies started sprouting up. Critics complain that because the start-ups are able to provide a wide assortment of fruits and veggies from large farms around the country, it's gotten difficult for small farms to compete with these marketing machines—and the farmers are losing profits fast.

Also, some of the companies may fail to mention that plenty of ugly fruits and veggies do have other uses. In the food service industry, for example, produce is sliced, diced, blended, and more—regardless of what it looks like. On farms, fruits like melons can be fed to animals, and rotted fruit is plowed back into soil to add nutrients. And, maybe most importantly, ugly produce companies have been denounced for cashing in on food that could otherwise be sent to food banks.

It's not that critics of ugly produce start-ups believe the companies don't have a right to exist, but they want the companies to tell people the truth about imperfect produce—the good, the bad, and the ugly—and they want to make sure the start-ups don't cause more harm than good.

Not So Bad, After All?

Clearly, the criticism of the imperfect produce movement can get ugly at times. But the companies are defending themselves.

In March 2019, Imperfect Produce clapped back at critics on its website, letting people know that not only does it not take away from food banks that help the needy—Imperfect Produce says it sources from farms only after food banks take what they want—but that the company itself regularly donates to food banks. Now put that in your food basket!

As for the companies' messaging that they save unwanted produce from being wasted, it's true that some produce goes to waste in America. In fact, the Department of Agriculture has even confirmed that with an estimated 30 to 40 percent of the country's food supply wasted, food waste is a major problem in the U.S.

But what about those local farmers who view ugly produce companies as competition? Imperfect Produce claims it doesn't have to be either-or; both farmers and ugly produce sellers can play a part in reducing food waste.

No matter whom you're siding with on this one, remember this: It's what's on the inside that counts.

Dictionary

forestall (verb) to prevent, hinder, or thwart by action in advance skeptic (noun) a person who questions if something is true

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 According to the Article, what is one reason why skeptics believe ugly produce companies aren't being completely forthcoming in their messaging?

Ugly produce companies have refused to discuss why their business model allows them to offer such deep discounts to customers.

Some ugly produce companies conceal the fact that some of their produce has previously been rejected by supermarkets.

Ugly produce companies may fail to mention that ugly fruits and vegetables are also utilized on farms and in the food industry.

Some ugly produce companies do not acknowledge the results of a Department of Agriculture study about food waste in the United States.

Question 2 Which of these is most important to include in a summary of this Article?

Some local farmers across the country have been selling boxes of imperfect produce directly to consumers and farmers markets for years.

Ugly produce start-ups say their mission is to prevent billions of pounds of imperfect produce from needlessly going to waste each year.

In March 2019, Imperfect Produce revealed on its website that it regularly donates food to food banks that help the needy.

Some imperfect fruits can be fed to farm animals, and rotted fruit can be plowed back into the soil to add nutrients.

Question 3 Which of these is a fact?

Supermarkets deserve much of the blame for today's food waste problem, considering that they reject perfectly good produce based on appearance alone.

It's important for local farmers who view ugly produce companies as competition to launch online marketing campaigns in order to attract more customers.

The criticism piled on imperfect produce companies is pointless because consumers are more motivated than ever to prevent food waste and save money.

Ugly produce companies not only sell fruits and vegetables that may have been rejected by supermarkets, but they also deliver them right to customers' doorsteps.

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word forestall, as it is used in the Article?

Exempt Contaminate

Avert Dispense

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Question 5 The author probably wrote this Article in order to __________.

Criticize the founders of ugly produce companies for not doing enough to support food banks that distribute unwanted fruits and vegetables to the needy

Convince readers to only purchase food from companies that work with small farmers to reduce food waste in the United States

Inspire companies like Imperfect Produce and Hungry Harvest to reconsider their marketing messaging Offer readers both sides of a debate about ugly produce start-ups, their intentions, and whether these

companies are doing more harm than good

Question 6 Which passage from the Article best supports the opinion that imperfect produce companies are only concerned with what's best for their own profits?

The start-ups say they're on a mission to forestall billions of pounds of imperfect produce from needlessly going to waste each year. Because really, a banged-up banana isn't any less tasty in a peanut butter sandwich, so why should it be thrown away?

In March 2019, Imperfect Produce clapped back at critics on its website, letting people know that not only does it not take away from food banks that help the needy—Imperfect Produce says it sources from farms only after food banks take what they want—but that the company itself regularly donates to food banks. Now put that in your food basket!

But what about those local farmers who view ugly produce companies as competition? Imperfect Produce claims it doesn't have to be either-or; both farmers and ugly produce sellers can play a part in reducing food waste.

Case in point: Many local farmers across the country had already been selling boxes of imperfect produce directly to consumers and farmers markets for years before the ugly produce companies started sprouting up. Critics complain that because the start-ups are able to provide a wide assortment of fruits and veggies from large farms around the country, it's gotten difficult for small farms to compete with these marketing machines—and the farmers are losing profits fast.

Question 7 The Article states:

Also, some of the companies may fail to mention that plenty of ugly fruits and veggies do have other uses. In the food service industry, for example, produce is sliced, diced, blended, and more—regardless of what it looks like. On farms, fruits like melons can be fed to animals, and rotted fruit is plowed back into soil to add nutrients. And, maybe most importantly, ugly produce companies have been denounced for cashing in on food that could otherwise be sent to food banks.

Which is the closest synonym for the word denounced, as it is used above? Dispraised Acquitted Commended Disciplined

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Question 8 Based on the Article, which is most likely to happen?

Ugly produce companies will be forced out of business as local farmers start selling imperfect fruits and vegetables to people in their neighborhoods.

As more consumers start buying goods from ugly produce start-ups, some supermarkets may consider adding imperfect produce to their grocery aisles.

Food banks will begin to purchase their fruits and vegetables from ugly produce companies that offer deep discounts.

To please critics who question if they are always truthful, ugly produce companies will inform customers that food waste may not be a problem in the U.S.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. All "ugly" produce should be given away to people in need.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Are ugly produce companies causing more harm than good? Summarize both sides of the argument for and against ugly produce companies. Which side do you agree with and why? Cite evidence from the text to support your response.

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Katherine the Great (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

One woman worked for NASA as a math expert. She started in the 1950s at a time when women and minorities were often discouraged from pursuing high-level jobs. What do you think?

If you can imagine it, you can achieve it. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Joseph Rodriguez/AP Katherine Johnson's expert work as a mathematician for NASA made headlines in more ways than one.

HAMPTON, Virginia (Achieve3000, February 25, 2019). Katherine Johnson has never had a hit song or given an Oscar-winning performance, nor has she been an Olympic athlete or a fashion icon. Instead, Johnson's greatness comes from her work as a math expert.

Math directly impacts all our lives, whether we're aware of it or not. Johnson's math, too, directly affects your life, in the legacy of her work for NASA—the U.S. space agency—which she performed from the 1950s until the 1980s. Without NASA's space program, which her calculations helped advance, we wouldn't have the technology necessary for things like satellite TV, sophisticated meteorology, and small computers (like laptops and iPhones). So while Johnson may never be on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, you could say she's quite a hero.

You may be conversant with Johnson's name and work if you've seen the 2016 movie Hidden Figures, which tells the story of Johnson and two other African American women who worked behind the scenes at NASA as "human computers." They did things like calculate orbital trajectories—vital work when you're preparing to send people into space. Remarkably, they did this work at a time when women and minorities were often dissuaded from pursuing high-level jobs.

To get a job as a "human computer," of course, Johnson had to be extremely proficient at math—and she was. Born in West Virginia in 1918, Johnson was a prodigy who skipped several grades in school. After graduating from college with high honors and a degree in mathematics, she began teaching at a public school. In 1953, after hearing that jobs for African American women with math and science backgrounds

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were available at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, which later became part of NASA), Johnson applied and was offered a position.

Johnson worked on numerous space missions, and by 1962, she had earned a reputation for the accuracy of her calculations. That year, NASA was preparing for Friendship 7, a mission that would put astronaut John Glenn into orbit around Earth. NASA had programmed computers with the necessary equations to calculate the trajectory of Glenn's space capsule. Anyone who has ever used a computer knows how fast and accurate they are, but Glenn wondered what would happen if the computers broke down or malfunctioned. To guard against this, he requested a human computer—specifically, Katherine Johnson—to run the equations that had been programmed into the computers.

"If she says they're good," Johnson later remembered Glenn saying, "then I'm ready to go." Johnson did the equations, and the mission was a success.

In her three decades at NASA, Johnson worked on many other missions, including Project Apollo's lunar lander (yes, that's the famous one that landed astronauts on the moon for the first time, in 1969), as well as the space shuttle program.

Johnson, who has been retired from NASA since 1986, turned 100 in 2018 but hasn't slowed down—not significantly, anyway. In fact, Johnson, who is finally ready to tell her own story, will release Reaching for the Moon, an autobiography for young readers, in the summer of 2019. The NASA legend believes she was able to reach for the moon because of a lifetime of curiosity. "You learn if you want to. So you've got to want to learn," she says. Johnson wants young people to be able to follow in her impressive footsteps and to believe that they can do anything. The Associated Press contributed to this story. Video credit: NASA

Dictionary conversant (adjective) having knowledge or experience dissuade (verb) to advise or urge against prodigy (noun) someone who demonstrates amazing talent at a young age trajectory (noun) the path of an object through space

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is a cause and effect relationship that takes place in the Article?

Because Katherine Johnson was the subject of the 2016 hit movie Hidden Figures, her name appears on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Because Katherine Johnson was proficient at math, she was hired as a "human computer" for NASA and earned a reputation for the accuracy of her calculations.

Because NASA did not yet have computers programmed to calculate the trajectory of astronaut John Glenn's space capsule, he asked Katherine Johnson to run the equations for his mission.

Because women and minorities were encouraged to pursue high-level jobs in the 1950s, Katherine Johnson was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

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Question 2 The best alternate headline for this Article would be __________.

From Prodigy to Math Hero, Katherine Johnson's Life Is Proof That Anything Is Possible Katherine Johnson Tells Her Story in an Autobiography for Young Readers It's No Surprise Math Expert Katherine Johnson Skipped Several Grades in School "Human Computer" Katherine Johnson Celebrates Turning 100 Years Old

Question 3 Which of these had not yet happened when this Article was written? This question asks about when events happened. It does not ask where in the Article the events appear. Look back at the Article for clues, such as dates.

Katherine Johnson released an autobiography titled Reaching for the Moon. Katherine Johnson worked on a mission that sent astronauts to the moon.

Katherine Johnson retired from NASA after three decades of work at the agency. Katherine Johnson was one of the women portrayed in the movie Hidden Figures.

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word conversant, as it is used in the Article?

Exasperated Obsessed Acquainted Disconnected

Question 5 This Article would be most useful as a source for a student research project on __________.

The extraordinary accomplishments of former NASA astronaut John Glenn NASA's contributions to modern-day technology Groundbreaking women in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math Katherine Johnson's childhood years in West Virginia

Question 6 Based on the Article, the reader can infer that __________.

In the 1960s, John Glenn and other astronauts completely trusted the accuracy of the technology available at the time.

Katherine Johnson was a respected public figure who enjoyed the spotlight during her career, which spanned three decades at NASA.

Many young people, especially those who have experienced race or gender discrimination, will likely find Katherine Johnson's autobiography inspirational.

In 1953, Katherine Johnson was likely not surprised to learn that the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was interested in hiring African American women.

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Question 7 Which passage from the Article best supports the notion that Katherine Johnson's work at NASA was more important than most astronauts likely realized at the time?

To guard against this, he requested a human computer—specifically, Katherine Johnson—to run the equations that had been programmed into the computers.

Johnson worked on numerous space missions, and by 1962, she had earned a reputation for the accuracy of her calculations.

Without NASA's space program, which her calculations helped advance, we wouldn't have the technology necessary for things like satellite TV, sophisticated meteorology, and small computers (like laptops and iPhones).

In her three decades at NASA, Johnson worked on many other missions, including Project Apollo's lunar lander (yes, that's the famous one that landed astronauts on the moon for the first time, in 1969), as well as the space shuttle program.

Question 8 The Article states:

To get a job as a "human computer," of course, Johnson had to be extremely proficient at math—and she was. Born in West Virginia in 1918, Johnson was a prodigy who skipped several grades in school. After graduating from college with high honors and a degree in mathematics, she began teaching at a public school.

Which would be the closest antonym for the word proficient, as it is used above? Noticeable Offensive Logical Incompetent

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. If you can imagine it, you can achieve it.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Describe Katherine Johnson's work at NASA and how she helped lead the way for both women and African Americans to succeed in math and other technical fields. Use facts and details from the lesson in your response.

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The Last Generation? (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Some people from the Pacific Islands are working to stop climate change. They're afraid rising sea levels could take away their homeland. What do you think?

Everyone should work together to stop climate change. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: maloff/Shutterstock The capital city of Majuro, Marshall Islands, is only 300 feet wide in most places, yet the thin strip of land is

home to over 27,000 people.

MAJURO, Marshall Islands (Achieve3000, November 7, 2019). Living on a tropical island might sound fabulous, but what if you took a trip or went away for college and found you could never return? What if your home, and even the land it stood on, was gone forever? This isn't the plot of a fantasy movie or the premise of a video game—it's a painfully real possibility faced by people living in the Pacific Islands. Rising sea levels, due to the advent of climate change, threaten the very existence of these island nations, and young people whose families have deep roots on the islands are starting to wonder if they will be the last generation.

But the islanders' determination is as strong as their connection to their home. While the Pacific Islands are made up of 11 independent countries, including the Marshall Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and the Federated States of Micronesia, the people of these disparate nations are banding together to confront the challenges of climate change.

Why is climate change such a huge threat to this part of the world? It's a matter of "first and worst." Because of their low elevations, islands are among the first places where communities are harmed by rising sea levels, and scientists have found that sea levels have risen more in the South Pacific than in other parts of the world. The Pacific Islands will likely face some of the worst devastation from the impacts of climate change. The region is vulnerable to very destructive tropical storms, and it's hard for small, remote countries to recover from natural disasters.

The nations of the Pacific Islands, which are home to more than 2 million people, recognize that when it comes to climate change, they are all in the same boat. Working together, they set about looking for ways to take the helm and address the problem. Scientists know that one way to slow or reverse the impacts of

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climate change is to significantly reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. But cutting back air pollution on the islands is unlikely to have a big effect because they aren't a major source of emissions to begin with. China, for example, emits 29 percent of the world's carbon annually, and the United States emits 16 percent. The Marshall Islands, on the other hand, emit less than 0.00001 percent of the world's carbon!

But there is one feature of island life that gives these small nations an opportunity to make a big difference. Most of the things that people on islands buy are delivered by ships, and the environmental impact of these seafaring vessels is enormous. In fact, experts say cargo ships are responsible for almost 3 percent of the world's carbon emissions, which is about the same amount attributed to the entire country of Germany!

Realizing it was up to them to come up with solutions in their own backyards—or bays and harbors—Pacific Islanders came up with a plan. At the United Nations Climate Action Summit in 2019, the governments of Fiji, the Marshall Islands, Samoa, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu announced the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership. The alliance pledges a 40 percent reduction in carbon emissions from shipping by 2030 and wants to achieve zero-carbon shipping by 2050.

How will the countries meet these ambitious goals for going green with Pacific Blue? They plan to leverage some really cool, environmentally friendly, carbon-free technologies, such as solar-powered ships and hydrogen fuel cells, and to harness wind energy for sailing and converting to electric power. Through the partnership and their efforts to assemble a fleet of these greener ships, Pacific Island nations are leading the world by example. They're hoping their move could start a wave of change in the shipping industry.

But Pacific Islanders aren't stopping there! They're coordinating programs to focus attention on increasing their resilience to changes in climate, preparing for natural disasters, and protecting fisheries and farms from rising seawater.

Sea levels are rising, but hopes aren't sinking in the Pacific Islands, where people are fighting for life and land. The citizens of these island nations are inspired to work together so they all can survive and thrive in their homelands for generations to come.

Video credit: United Nations Dictionary

resilience (noun) the ability to become strong, healthy, or successful again after something bad happens vulnerable (adjective) open to attack, harm, or damage

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is a cause and effect relationship that takes place in the Article?

Because China emits high levels of carbon as compared with the rest of the world, communities in China will be some of the first places to experience the harmful consequences of rising sea levels resulting from climate change.

Because cargo ships are responsible for approximately 3 percent of the world's carbon emissions, the United Nations Climate Action Summit formulated a plan called the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership in 2019.

Because Pacific Island countries contribute only a minor proportion of the world's carbon emissions, reducing air pollution on the islands is unlikely to significantly impact the amount of carbon worldwide.

Because the Pacific Island region is coordinating programs to increase its ability to effectively react to destructive tropical storms, some Pacific Island countries pledged to achieve zero-carbon emissions from shipping by 2050.

Question 2 The Article primarily discusses __________.

the potential of solar power, hydrogen fuel cells, and wind energy, all of which are technologies that do not emit carbon, to replace carbon-emitting technologies that cause damage to the environment in the Pacific Islands

the geography of the Pacific Islands, including their location in the South Pacific and the 11 independent countries they encompass, such as the Marshall Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and the Federated States of Micronesia

the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted by the Pacific Islands compared to larger countries, including China, which emits 29 percent of the world's carbon annually, and the United States, which emits 16 percent

the effect of climate change on the Pacific Island nations, and the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership, in which carbon-free technologies will be used to significantly reduce carbon emitted by cargo ships that deliver goods to the islands

Question 3 Which is the closest synonym for the word vulnerable?

susceptible feasible negligible compatible

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Question 4 Which information is not in the Article?

Why the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership includes only some of the countries that make up the Pacific Islands rather than all of them

Why the Marshall Islands, Fiji, Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, and other countries in the Pacific Islands have started working together

Why the countries in the Pacific Islands rely on carbon-producing cargo ships more than some other countries do

Why the Pacific Island countries are experiencing the effects of climate change more than some other areas

Question 5 Read the following passage from the Article:

But there is one feature of island life that gives these small nations an opportunity to make a big difference. Most of the things that people on islands buy are delivered by ships, and the environmental impact of these seafaring vessels is enormous. In fact, experts say cargo ships are responsible for almost 3 percent of the world's carbon emissions, which is about the same amount attributed to the entire country of Germany!

Why did the author include this information?

To emphasize the dangerous environmental impact of climate change caused by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions

To inform readers that the Pacific Islands are responsible for producing almost 3 percent of the world's carbon emissions

To explain why the Pacific Island countries developed a plan for reducing carbon emissions from cargo ships rather than emissions from other sources

To describe a variety of innovative strategies for reducing carbon emissions in an effort to slow or reverse climate change

Question 6 The Article states:

While the Pacific Islands are made up of 11 independent countries, including the Marshall Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and the Federated States of Micronesia, the people of these disparate nations are banding together to confront the challenges of climate change.

Which is the closest antonym for the word disparate? obscure ingenious adaptable equivalent

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Question 7 What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

Small island nations are unable to reduce air pollution since their levels of carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions are already so low.

The Pacific Island countries are the first to propose solutions to the problems resulting from climate change because other countries are not affected by rising sea levels.

Countries that emit high levels of carbon cause negative consequences not only in their own backyards but around the entire world.

Zero-carbon shipping is an unattainable ideal, so the countries in the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership accept a 40 percent reduction in shipping-related carbon emissions as a realistic goal.

Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the belief that the threat to the Pacific Islands resulting from climate change is critical?

Scientists know that one way to slow or reverse the impacts of climate change is to significantly reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. But cutting back air pollution on the islands is unlikely to have a big effect because they aren't a major source of emissions to begin with. China, for example, emits 29 percent of the world's carbon annually, and the United States emits 16 percent.

How will the countries meet these ambitious goals for going green with Pacific Blue? They plan to leverage some really cool, environmentally friendly, carbon-free technologies, such as solar-powered ships and hydrogen fuel cells, and to harness wind energy for sailing and converting to electric power. Through the partnership and their efforts to assemble a fleet of these greener ships, Pacific Island nations are leading the world by example. They're hoping their move could start a wave of change in the shipping industry.

But there is one feature of island life that gives these small nations an opportunity to make a big difference. Most of the things that people on islands buy are delivered by ships, and the environmental impact of these seafaring vessels is enormous. In fact, experts say cargo ships are responsible for almost 3 percent of the world's carbon emissions, which is about the same amount attributed to the entire country of Germany!

What if your home, and even the land it stood on, was gone forever? This isn't the plot of a fantasy movie or the premise of a video game—it's a painfully real possibility faced by people living in the Pacific Islands. Rising sea levels, due to the advent of climate change, threaten the very existence of these island nations, and young people whose families have deep roots on the islands are starting to wonder if they will be the last generation.

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Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement.

Everyone should work together to stop climate change.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

How is climate change affecting the Pacific Islands? What are some Pacific Island nations doing about this problem? Include information from the Article in your response.

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A Musical Pioneer (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

In the world of classical music, most conductors are men, and there are few conductors of color. But South Africa's Ofentse Pitse stands out. She's a young, black, female conductor. What do you think?

People who are willing to stand out help to bring about change.

• Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Courtesy Ofentse Pitse Ofentse Pitse is the conductor and founder of Anchored Sound, an orchestra and choir for disadvantaged youth

in South Africa.

JOHANNESBURG, South Africa (Achieve3000, January 14, 2020). Ofentse Pitse is making waves. Sound waves, that is! She's the conductor and founder of Anchored Sound, an orchestra and youth choir in her home country of South Africa. The visionary leader of this all-black ensemble has set her sights on empowering black youth and showcasing classical music created by African artists.

Pitse is a pioneer in the world of classical music, and not just because this go-getter is only 27 years old. In terms of diversity, classical music has lagged far behind most other kinds of music. A 2017 study gathered data about the most prestigious orchestras worldwide and found that only 5 of the 100 most sought after conductors were women. (That might sound ludicrously lopsided, but it's actually an improvement over the statistics from 2013, when the top 100 included just 1 female conductor!) There are relatively few people of color on the podium as well—about 80 percent of classical music conductors in the U.S., for example, are white. Finally, classical music started in Europe hundreds of years ago, and although its influence and audience now extend far beyond the continent, many people still associate it with European culture. In short, as a young, black, female conductor born and raised in South Africa, Pitse is truly one of a kind.

Musical mastery runs in Pitse's family. Her grandfather was a jazz band conductor and choir director who played the trumpet, so you might guess that she picked up the baton as soon as she was old enough to stand, but actually, that wasn't the case. In fact, music wasn't even her first career path, and unlike most conductors, she didn't go through years of formal training before taking the stage. Although she enjoyed

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singing as a child and learned to play the English horn at age 12, she also excelled at drawing and chose to become an architect.

But music called to Pitse…and this artistic polymath listened. In 2017, she started a choir, selecting young singers who had exceptional talent and big aspirations but were from disadvantaged communities and therefore had limited opportunities for success. She says the experience has been transformative for these young people, allowing them a chance to develop their gifts, build their confidence, and realize their dreams. Now that's something worth singing about!

Pitse's impressive project didn't stop there—you could say she was just getting tuned up. With the intention of forming an orchestra to accompany her singers, she enlisted the help of two top-notch mentors, Thami Zungu and Gerben Grooten, both acclaimed conductors at universities in South Africa. By 2019, Pitse had honed her conducting skills and recruited a retinue of accomplished musicians and financial supporters, creating a 40-member orchestra.

What's on the program at an Anchored Sound performance? Audiences might get to hear pieces written by Mzilikazi Khumalo, Phelelani Mnomiya, or Sibusiso Njeza. If these names are new to you, you're not alone. At classical music concerts, it's more common to hear music written centuries ago by European composers like Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach, but Pitse wants listeners to know that classical music is alive and well in Africa, so the group's repertoire focuses on African composers. It's all part of Pitse's plan to bring the beauty and artistry of African classical music to the world. Clearly, this former architect's not afraid to orchestrate change on a big scale!

Video credit: Mesia Gumede

Dictionary

ludicrous (adjective) very foolish: ridiculous polymath (noun) someone who knows a lot about many different things

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

Ofentse Pitse is the conductor and founder of Anchored Sound, an orchestra and youth choir that gives disadvantaged young singers with exceptional talent and big aspirations the chance to develop their gifts while performing the works of leading African composers.

Most people are familiar with the works of Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach, but Ofentse Pitse wants to include the works of African composers in her concerts, so her audiences can enjoy pieces written by Mzilikazi Khumalo, Phelelani Mnomiya, or Sibusiso Njeza.

With the intention of forming an orchestra to accompany her singers, Ofentse Pitse enlisted the help of two top-notch mentors, Thami Zungu and Gerben Grooten, both acclaimed conductors at universities in South Africa.

Although Ofentse Pitse enjoyed singing as a little girl and learned to play the English horn at the age of 12, she also excelled at drawing and chose to become an architect before she decided to pick up a baton and lead an orchestra.

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Question 2 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

Classical music started in Europe centuries ago, and although its influence and audience now extend far beyond the continent, many people associate it with European culture.

A recent study that gathered data on the most prestigious orchestras worldwide found that only 5 out of the 100 most sought after conductors were women.

Ofentse Pitse never would have become a conductor of a classical orchestra and choir had her grandfather not been an accomplished trumpet player and jazz band conductor.

When Ofentse Pitse needed help establishing her orchestra, she enlisted two mentors, Thami Zungu and Gerben Grooten.

Question 3 The Article states:

What's on the program at an Anchored Sound performance? Audiences might get to hear pieces written by Mzilikazi Khumalo, Phelelani Mnomiya, or Sibusiso Njeza. If these names are new to you, you're not alone. At classical music concerts, it's more common to hear music written centuries ago by European composers like Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach, but Pitse wants listeners to know that classical music is alive and well in Africa, so the group's repertoire focuses on African composers. It's all part of Pitse's plan to bring the beauty and artistry of African classical music to the world. Clearly, this former architect's not afraid to orchestrate change on a big scale!

Why did the author include this passage?

To suggest that Khumalo, Mnomiya, and Njeza are more accomplished composers than many of the European masters

To point out different ways in which the sound of classical music has changed since the days of Beethoven, Mozart, and Bach

To show how Ofentse Pitse is trying to change people's conceptions of what constitutes classical music today

To explain who had originally inspired Ofentse Pitse to create and lead a classical orchestra and choir

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word polymath?

sage capitalist liaison beneficiary

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Question 5 What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

The performances of Ofentse Pitse's choir typically feature at least one piece written by Mozart, Beethoven, or Bach.

Ofentse Pitse has written many of the classical pieces that are often performed by her orchestra and choir. Khumalo, Mnomiya, and Njeza often take the role of conductor and lead Ofentse Pitse's choir and 40-

member orchestra. Many of the young people in Ofentse Pitse's choir might not have been able to pursue their passion for

music without her help.

Question 6 Which information is not in the Article?

How Ofentse Pitse felt when she directed her first combined orchestra and choir performance Who guided Ofentse Pitse when she wanted to form an orchestra to accompany her singers What musical instrument Ofentse Pitse learned to play when she was just 12 years old Why Ofentse Pitse is considered a one-of-a-kind conductor in the world of classical music

Question 7 Read this passage from the Article:

If these names are new to you, you're not alone. At classical music concerts, it's more common to hear music written centuries ago by European composers like Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach, but Pitse wants listeners to know that classical music is alive and well in Africa, so the group's repertoire focuses on African composers. It's all part of Pitse's plan to bring the beauty and artistry of African classical music to the world.

In this passage, the word repertoire means __________. the space in which a play or musical performance takes place the songs that a performer or group of performers can play the beliefs, customs, or mores of a particular group or society the first professional achievement of an artist or composer

Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Ofentse Pitse's concerts feature classical music that some listeners might not be familiar with?

Pitse is a pioneer in the world of classical music, and not just because this go-getter is only 27 years old. In terms of diversity, classical music has lagged far behind most other kinds of music. A 2017 study gathered data about the most prestigious orchestras worldwide and found that only 5 of the 100 most sought-after conductors were women. (That might sound ludicrously lopsided, but it's actually an improvement over the statistics from 2013, when the top 100 included just 1 female conductor!)

But music called to Pitse…and this artistic polymath listened. In 2017, she started a choir, selecting young singers who had exceptional talent and big aspirations but were from disadvantaged communities and therefore had limited opportunities for success. She says the experience has been transformative for these young people,

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allowing them a chance to develop their gifts, build their confidence, and realize their dreams. Now that's something worth singing about!

Musical mastery runs in Pitse's family. Her grandfather was a jazz band conductor and choir director who played the trumpet, so you might guess that she picked up the baton as soon as she was old enough to stand, but actually, that wasn't the case. In fact, music wasn't even her first career path, and unlike most conductors, she didn't go through years of formal training before taking the stage.

What's on the program at an Anchored Sound performance? Audiences might get to hear pieces written by Mzilikazi Khumalo, Phelelani Mnomiya, or Sibusiso Njeza. If these names are new to you, you're not alone. At classical music concerts, it's more common to hear music written centuries ago by European composers like Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach, but Pitse wants listeners to know that classical music is alive and well in Africa, so the group's repertoire focuses on African composers.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. People who are willing to stand out help to bring about change.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Retell this story from the perspective of a journalist who is interviewing Ofentse Pitse. Indicate what questions the reporter might ask Pitse, as well as the answers she might give. Be sure to include information from the Article, as well as vocabulary terms and descriptive phrases, in your response.

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Otzi the Iceman (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Ötzi the Iceman lived about 5,300 years ago. Scientists have been studying Ötzi's remains since his body was found in 1991. What do you think?

Ötzi should be left alone. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Sergio Monti Photography/Shutterstock Ötzi the Iceman lives again in this life-size recreation that's based on medical scans of his skeleton and 3-D

modeling techniques.

BOLZANO, Italy (Achieve3000, November 21, 2019). It had to have been rough going for Ötzi (pronounced OET-see) the Iceman those last few days of his life some 5,300 years ago. There he was, a 46-ish-year-old man about 5 feet and 2 inches and 110 pounds (157 centimeters and 50 kilograms), climbing up a steep mountain in what is now called the Ötztal Alps of northern Italy (hence his name). And, unfortunately, the poor guy was suffering from a blow to his head, a serious wound on his right hand, and an arrowhead lodged in his left shoulder.

Some days were better than others in prehistory.

Chances are, Ötzi had battled with another or maybe several other late-Neolithic men in the valley below. Clearly, he didn't fare too well in the encounter. His wounds probably prevented him from retaliating, or he would've finished the half-made wooden bow and arrows that he carried with him. He also had a copper ax on hand—after all, this was the Copper Age—but fleeing up a cold mountain was probably preferable to using it in combat. Fortunately, he was wearing warm clothing made of leather, hides, and grass and had eaten a bellyful of goat meat and grain earlier. But would he survive the cold and the wounds? He would not, and if you're wondering how so much detailed info is known about a man who lived and died so long ago, here's one more detail that explains it all: Shortly after his death, Ötzi's body was covered

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and frozen solid by glacial ice. And he remained that way until 1991, when two hikers found him in his partially thawed ice tomb looking rather well, all things considered. Understandably, the discovery made international headlines. Here was the first well-preserved body from the late-Neolithic period ever to be found in Europe, fully attired and accessorized no less, offering historians a veritable treasure trove of information about prehistoric life.

Just as a frame of reference—the Egyptian pyramids and Stonehenge had not even been built yet when Ötzi was alive.

Ötzi has become one of the most carefully studied ancient human specimens ever. His remains have been X-rayed, CAT-scanned, carbon-dated, and analyzed, as have his clothing and gear. As a result, scientistshave been able to ascertain quite a lot about him. He had a narrow and pointed face, brown eyes, tanned andtattooed skin, long dark hair, a scraggly beard, and type O-positive blood. And amazingly, his DNA showsthat he has at least 19 modern-day relatives through his father's genetic line.

Aside from his injuries and wounds, Ötzi likely had a slew of medical issues, such as heart disease, joint pain, tooth decay, lactose intolerance, damaged lungs, stomach worms, fleas, and probably Lyme disease as well. It's speculated that the many tattoos on his body are evidence of some prehistoric therapeutic technique to relieve body aches—akin to acupuncture. And it sounds like he sure could've used the relief.

So what did a primitive dude-on-the-go like Ötzi wear to beat the cold? A leather overcoat made of hides from at least four different sheep and goats stitched together with animal sinews, a sheepskin loincloth, goatskin leggings, a furry bearskin hat with chinstrap, leather shoes stuffed with grass, and cow leather shoelaces. An analysis of the various skins indicates that animals during this era were domesticated as well as hunted.

In addition to his copper ax and bow and arrows, Ötzi's possessions included a flint dagger with a wooden handle, a grass net that may have also served as a mat or cape, a wooden U-shaped backpack, a deerskin quiver for his arrows, and a calfskin belt with a sewn-on pouch that contained several small tools. Interestingly, the materials used in Ötzi's tools came from different regions hundreds of miles away, suggesting some sort of trade network. Oh, yes, Ötzi had a few snacks on hand, too—a sloeberry, some mushrooms, and a few gnawed goat bones.

In November 2019, some new data was added to the Ötzi file: An analysis of the vegetation found in his stomach and underfoot reveals his actual travel route in the days before his death. Alas, poor Ötzi is long gone but not forgotten—and still full of surprises.

Dictionary

carbon dating (noun) a scientific way of finding the age of something that is very old (such as a dinosaur bone) by measuring the amount of certain forms of carbon in it Neolithic (adjective) of or relating to the time during the Stone Age when people used stone tools and began to grow crops, raise animals, and live together in large groups but did not read or write veritable (adjective) true or real — used to emphasize a description

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

After being preserved for more than 5,000 years in a tomb of ice, Ötzi the Iceman is teaching the world about prehistoric life based on the food, tools, and accessories he carried, along with an analysis of his many health issues.

It is speculated that the many tattoos on Ötzi the Iceman's body are evidence of some prehistoric therapeutic technique to relieve body aches, which was possibly the first occurrence of modern-day acupuncture.

Ötzi the Iceman appears to have suffered from a host of medical conditions, including severe body aches, heart disease, tooth decay, Lyme disease, lactose intolerance, and parasites, such as fleas and stomach worms.

Because of the injuries sustained by Ötzi the Iceman, including a blow to his head, a serious wound on his right hand, and an arrowhead lodged in his left shoulder, it is believed he had battled with one or more other late-Neolithic men before beginning his trek up the Ötztal Alps.

Question 2 Read the following passage from the Article:

Shortly after his death, Ötzi's body was covered and frozen solid by glacial ice. And he remained that way until 1991, when two hikers found him in his partially thawed ice tomb looking rather well, all things considered. Understandably, the discovery made international headlines. Here was the first well-preserved body from the late-Neolithic period ever to be found in Europe, fully attired and accessorized no less, offering historians a veritable treasure trove of information about prehistoric life.

Why did the author include this information?

To explain the significance of the discovery of Ötzi the Iceman's 5,300-year-old body in such immaculate condition

To describe how the attire worn by prehistoric men and women aided in their survival during harsh weather conditions

To determine how much information historians already knew about the late-Neolithic period before the discovery of Ötzi

To provide evidence of the impact the late-Neolithic period had on the advancement of modern-age tools and other accessories

Question 3 Which is the closest antonym for the word veritable?

fictitious spontaneous nonchalant eminent

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Question 4 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

Ötzi is the most interesting archaeological find in history because the knowledge scientists are gaining from his discovery is unparalleled.

The remains of Ötzi have unearthed many discoveries, including DNA and genetic information showing that there are at least 19 modern-day people related to Ötzi.

Food discovered around Ötzi and in his stomach revealed clues leading to the discovery of the route he traveled before his passing.

Ötzi was covered in tattoos, which some believe to be evidence of a technique used to relieve body aches and pains.

Question 5 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Ötzi's injuries led to his untimely death?

In November 2019, some new data was added to the Ötzi file: An analysis of the vegetation found in his stomach and underfoot reveals his actual travel route in the days before his death. Alas, poor Ötzi is long gone but not forgotten—and still full of surprises.

It had to have been rough going for Ötzi (pronounced OET-see) the Iceman those last few days of his life some 5,300 years ago. There he was, a 46-ish-year-old man about 5 feet and 2 inches and 110 pounds (158 centimeters and 50 kilograms), climbing up a steep mountain in what is now called the Ötztal Alps of northern Italy (hence his name). And, unfortunately, the poor guy was suffering from a blow to his head, a serious wound on his right hand, and an arrowhead lodged in his left shoulder.

Aside from his injuries and wounds, Ötzi likely had a slew of medical issues, such as heart disease, joint pain, tooth decay, lactose intolerance, damaged lungs, stomach worms, fleas, and probably Lyme disease as well. It's speculated that the many tattoos on his body are evidence of some prehistoric therapeutic technique to relieve body aches—akin to acupuncture. And it sounds like he sure could've used the relief.

Shortly after his death, Ötzi's body was covered and frozen solid by glacial ice. And he remained that way until 1991, when two hikers found him in his partially thawed ice tomb looking rather well, all things considered.

Question 6 The Article states:

Chances are, Ötzi had battled with another or maybe several other late-Neolithic men in the valley below. Clearly, he didn't fare too well in the encounter. His wounds probably prevented him from retaliating, or he would've finished the half-made wooden bow and arrows that he carried with him.

Which is the closest synonym for the word retaliating? relinquishing reciprocating recuperating replenishing

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Question 7 This Article would be most useful as a source for a student research project on __________.

major scientific discoveries involving the late-Neolithic period various trade networks established in the late-Neolithic period ancient battles along the Ötztal Alps during the late-Neolithic period everyday attire worn by men and women of the late-Neolithic period

Question 8 Based on the Article, which is most likely to happen next?

Acupuncture will increase in popularity as people learn it was administered during the late-Neolithic period and likely provided Ötzi with substantial relief of pain.

Through further study of Ötzi's remains, scientists will uncover revolutionary clues relating to the creation of the Egyptian pyramids and Stonehenge.

Scientists will continue to examine Ötzi in hopes of making further groundbreaking discoveries about the Neolithic Age.

Trade routes will be established to connect faraway places based on the routes taken by ancient people, such as Ötzi.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Ötzi should be left alone.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Who was Ötzi the Iceman? What have scientists learned about Ötzi and about the time when he lived? Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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Sniffing Out Extinction (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Trained dogs are now being used to help save endangered species. What do you think?

All endangered species are worth saving. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Marina Makouskaya/iStock/Getty Images Plus This conservation detection dog can sniff out the scent of different species on land and in water.

MELBOURNE, Australia (Achieve3000, December 4, 2019). What can't a dog sniff out once it puts its snout to the task? Police K-9s detect everything from missing persons to counterfeit money. Healthcare pup-fessionals can pick up the scent markers of certain early-stage cancers, dangerous allergens in foods, and sudden changes in the blood-sugar levels of diabetics. And let's not forget an ordinary dog's uncanny ability to smell a just-opened can of dog food from afar.

Now add another smellable to the list: endangered species.

Indeed, conservationists around the world are putting dogs on the trail of at-risk animals with the hope of protecting and breeding them. The dogs' hunt begins indecorously with a healthy whiff of an animal's scent—usually in the form of scat (droppings). After all, dogs can divine scads of info just by sniffing the scents of fellow canine—who's in the neighborhood, what they've eaten, or if danger is lurking. So why not use a dog's astonishing nasal radar to track down a species that's in serious trouble, like the critically endangered Baw Baw frog of southeastern Australia?

Since 1980, problems stemming from climate change, non-native species, and a deadly fungus have decimated about 98 percent of the Baw Baw frog population. Now, fewer than 1,200 of them remain in the wild. Conservationists fear that unless the trend is reversed soon, these small brown amphibians will be extinct within the next 10 years. The problem is, finding Baw Baw frogs is no easy feat. They live in the hard-to-get-to forests of Mount Baw Baw, where they burrow in mud about 3 feet (1 meter) deep. To compound matters further, the males do their frog call only five to six weeks a year and females don't call at all, so the frogs aren't easily reached, seen, or heard.

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But none of this is of any consequence to Rubble and Uda, two border collies who've been enlisted by Zoos Victoria, an Australian conservation group, to lend a paw-paw to the Baw Baw. Zoos Victoria has been trying to save the frogs by learning about their habitat and breeding them in captivity. With Rubble and Uda's help, the results have been note- and nose-worthy. As soon as the dogs were trained to discern the smell of Baw Baw frogs, they led the Zoos Victoria conservationists through wild terrain and straight to the home of the elusive frogs.

Phase two of their mission will begin as conservationists refine their technique for releasing frogs and tadpoles into the wild. Rubble and Uda will be re-enlisted periodically to find the Baw Baw frog community once again so that conservationists can see if the zoo-bred frogs are surviving.

And that's how you save a species.

So what makes border collies such superb sniffers? First and foremost, they're dogs, which means their noses have about 50 times more olfactory receptors than people's noses. In addition, the part of their brains that analyze smells is proportionally 40 times greater than it is in humans. The net result is a living, breathing "scent-alyzer" whose sense of smell is 10,000 to 100,000 times more acute than ours.

And according to the dogs' trainer, Luke Edwards, Rubble and Uda have other invaluable skills that make them well suited for the job, in particular, their stamina: "That's what we're after for a working dog, is their stamina—both mentally and physically."

But Baw Baw frogs aren't the only species being sniffed out before they're snuffed out. Conservation detection dogs are also being used to track down Chinese pangolins, Pacific pocket mice, silverspot butterfly caterpillars, snow leopards, koalas, and even killer whales—all by smelling their scat and hitting the trail. Orca scat poses particular difficulties because it floats on the ocean's surface for only a short time. So conservation teams have to gauge winds and tides to get the dogs to it by boat before it's gone.

Yes, conservation can be a gritty business all right, but someone's got to work to save endangered animals—and dogs win out by a nose.

Voice of America contributed to this story. Video credit: Voice of America

Dictionary

decorous (adjective) correct and polite in a particular situation olfactory (adjective) of, relating to, or connected with the sense of smell

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

With a sense of smell somewhere between 10,000 and 100,000 times more acute than that of humans, dogs have been used to detect counterfeit money, the scent markers of certain early-stage cancers, and even sudden changes in diabetics' blood-sugar levels.

Since 1980, problems stemming from climate change, non-native species, and a deadly fungus have destroyed roughly 98 percent of the Baw Baw frog population in Australia, and scientists now estimate that there are fewer than 1,200 of the species left in their native habitats.

Dogs have roughly 50 times more olfactory receptors in their noses than human beings do, and the part of their brains that analyze smells is proportionally 40 times larger than it is in humans, which means that dogs have an uncanny sense of smell.

Dogs have such an incredible sense of smell that they have been recruited as conservation detection specialists who use their noses to locate endangered species so that scientists can find these rare animals, breed them in captivity, and later release them into the wild.

Question 2 According to the Article, why did conservationists at Zoos Victoria train two border collies to locate a critically endangered species using the scent of the animal?

The conservationists have had great difficulty locating the endangered Baw Baw frogs because the animals aren't easily reached, seen, or heard in the wild.

The conservationists want to find a better home for the Baw Baw frogs, away from the remote, wild terrain of southeastern Australia.

The conservationists are aware that orca scat poses particular difficulties for locating the endangered whales because it floats on the ocean's surface only for a short time before sinking.

The conservationists have had success with police K-9 dogs that have been trained to detect not only missing persons but also counterfeit money.

Question 3 The Article states:

Conservationists fear that unless the trend is reversed soon, these small brown amphibians will be extinct within the next 10 years. The problem is, finding Baw Baw frogs is no easy feat. They live in the hard-to-get-to forests of Mount Baw Baw, where they burrow in mud about 3 feet (1 meter) deep. To compound matters further, the males do their frog call only five to six weeks a year and females don't call at all, so the frogs aren't easily reached, seen, or heard.

Why did the author include this passage?

To point out the fact that there is little that can be done to help the Baw Baw frog because the species will be extinct in 10 years

To show how a dog's keen sense of smell can be used to find endangered animals such as the Baw Baw frog

To explain why conservationists find it so difficult to locate the elusive Baw Baw frog in its natural habitat To say why it is important that even seemingly insignificant animals like the Baw Baw frog should be

protected from extinction

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Question 4 Which two words are the closest synonyms? Only some of these words are used in the Article.

uncanny and sensory decimated and annihilated discern and disorient receptors and residues

Question 5 What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

None of the Baw Baw frogs that have been raised in captivity have so far been able to survive when they've been released into the wild.

Rubble and Uda have been trained to find a number of different animals other than the Baw Baw frog, including koalas and even killer whales.

Scientists find it more difficult to locate female Baw Baw frogs than males during the five or six weeks that the frogs' calls occur.

Orcas are some of the most difficult animals for dogs to detect because they have to swim to areas where the orcas have been sighted.

Question 6 Which information is not in the Article?

Which breed of dogs has proven to be the best at sniffing out certain illnesses Which animals other than the Baw Baw frog have dogs been trained to detect Why the Baw Baw frog is so hard for conservationists to locate on their own Why dogs have a much better sense of smell than humans do

Question 7 Read this passage from the Article:

With Rubble and Uda's help, the results have been note- and nose-worthy. As soon as the dogs were trained to discern the smell of Baw Baw frogs, they led the Zoos Victoria conservationists through wild terrain and straight to the home of the elusive frogs.

In this passage, the word elusive means __________. small in size or degree well known or famous hard to find or capture very strange or unusual

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Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that an animal might not continue to live on as a species without human intervention?

And according to the dogs' trainer, Luke Edwards, Rubble and Uda have other invaluable skills that make them well suited for the job, in particular, their stamina: "That's what we're after for a working dog, is their stamina—both mentally and physically."

So what makes border collies such superb sniffers? First and foremost, they're dogs, which means their noses have about 50 times more olfactory receptors than people's noses. In addition, the part of their brains that analyze smells is proportionally 40 times greater than it is in humans.

Since 1980, problems stemming from climate change, non-native species, and a deadly fungus have decimated about 98 percent of the Baw Baw frog population. Now, fewer than 1,200 of them remain in the wild. Conservationists fear that unless the trend is reversed soon, these small brown amphibians will be extinct within the next 10 years. The problem is, finding Baw Baw frogs is no easy feat.

What can't a dog sniff out once it puts its snout to the task? Police K-9s detect everything from missing persons to counterfeit money. Healthcare pup-fessionals can pick up the scent markers of certain early-stage cancers, dangerous allergens in foods, and sudden changes in the blood-sugar levels of diabetics. And let's not forget an ordinary dog's uncanny ability to smell a just-opened can of dog food from afar.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. All endangered species are worth saving.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Explain how trained dogs are being used to help save endangered species, such as the Baw Baw frog. Include information from the Article in your response.

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Social Media, Pompeii Style (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Today, people write their thoughts on websites like Facebook. Long ago, in the ancient city of Pompeii, people scribbled their thoughts on the walls of homes and buildings. What do you think?

People should always find a way to share their thoughts. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Karl Allen Lugmayer/Shutterstock This is one of the more than 11,000 ancient graffiti samples that have been uncovered in the excavations of

Pompeii.

POMPEII, Italy (Achieve3000, January 28, 2020). What does a 21st-century social media user have in common with a 1st-century resident of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii? They both posted messages on walls. There is a slight difference, though: Aficionados of Facebook and other social media sites post their comments on cyber walls, while ancient Pompeians posted theirs on actual ones (the kind that form houses and hold up roofs). And remarkably, some of their original messages—not to mention many of the walls themselves—are still there 2,000 years later.

In fact, wall graffiti was all over Pompeii—on public buildings, doors, archways, gladiator barracks, water distribution towers, atriums, bathhouses, and on the interior and exterior walls of private homes. Written in charcoal, scratched into stucco, and applied in paint, these messages represent the spontaneous expression of a people with a lot on their minds and no compunctions about broadcasting it all in public.

All of this raises some big questions: How did anything as impermanent as charcoal and stucco scratches survive the ravages of time? Better yet, why is so much of Pompeii itself still intact when most of the ancient world has crumbled away?

The answers date back to 79 CE, when a nearby volcano called Mount Vesuvius violently erupted, destroying Pompeii in a matter of hours. (Incidentally, it was a scrawl on a Pompeian wall that helped archaeologists ascertain when the eruption occurred.) Most of Pompeii's 20,000 residents fled before the volcanic ash and rock entombed the city, but tragically, about 2,000 people perished.

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Paradoxically, the cause of Pompeii's destruction was also the reason for its preservation: The volcanic debris protected the ruins from the elements until excavations of the site began in the mid-18th century. And there it was, under about 20 feet (about 6 meters) of stone and ash, an entire city seemingly flash-frozen in time, offering an unprecedented window into ancient Roman everyday life. From the beginning, archaeologists spotted the graffiti on the walls. In the late 19th century, scholars began making copies of the messages, and it's a good thing they did, as more than 90 percent of the graffiti has eroded since the ruins were unearthed.

So what messages did Pompeians write, exactly? In many ways, they were the same kinds of messages people write today on social media—opinions, grievances, pronouncements of love, consumer reviews, political endorsem*nts, recommendations, advertisem*nts, and advice. In fact, the oldest known message at Pompeii—dating back to 78 BCE—simply states, "Gaius Pumidius Diphilus was here."

Here are more examples of messages Pompeians "posted" around their city:

Health to you, Victoria, and wherever you are, may you sneeze sweetly. A copper pot went missing from my shop. Anyone who returns it to me will be given 65 sestertii. 20 more will be given for information leading to the capture of the thief. The city block of the Arrii Pollii…is available to rent from July 1. There are shops on the first floor, upper stories, high-class rooms, and a house. The man I am having dinner with is a barbarian. I beg you to elect Marcus Epidius Sabinus senior magistrate with judicial power, a most worthy young man. The venerable council is electing him. Stronius Stronnius knows nothing!

Call it social media, Pompeii style.

Video credit: Achieve3000

Dictionary

aficionado (noun) a person who likes and knows a lot about something compunction (noun) a feeling of guilt or regret venerable (adjective) old and respected: valued and respected because of old age, long use, etc.

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

When Mount Vesuvius violently erupted in 79 CE, it destroyed the city of Pompeii in a matter of hours, and though it tragically killed about 2,000 people, it is estimated that approximately 18,000 residents of the city were able to flee to safety.

Just like today's social media users who post messages on cyber walls, the residents of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii posted messages on actual walls that survived for millennia after being buried in the rock and ash from the eruption of nearby volcano, Mount Vesuvius.

The cause of the city of Pompeii's destruction was also the reason for its preservation, as the debris ejected from the volcano covered the city and protected it from the elements until excavations of the site began in the middle of the 18th century.

In the late 19th century, scholars began making copies of the messages that appeared on walls all over the city of Pompeii, and it's a good thing that they took the time to do so, as more than 90 percent of the graffiti has worn away since the ruins were first unearthed.

Question 2 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

A scrawl on a Pompeian wall helped archaeologists to ascertain that nearby Mount Vesuvius erupted in the year 79 CE.

The messages that have been found on the walls of the ancient city of Pompeii were written in charcoal, scratched into the stucco, or applied in paint.

In many ways, the graffiti found on the walls of the city of Pompeii include the same kinds of messages that people today write on social media.

It's advantageous for historical scholars to direct their studies of Pompeian messages to ones concerning political endorsem*nts and advice.

Question 3 The Article states:

Paradoxically, the cause of Pompeii's destruction was also the reason for its preservation: The volcanic debris protected the ruins from the elements until excavations of the site began in the mid-18th century. And there it was, under about 20 feet (about 6 meters) of stone and ash, an entire city seemingly flash-frozen in time, offering an unprecedented window into ancient Roman everyday life. From the beginning, archaeologists spotted the graffiti on the walls. In the late 19th century, scholars began making copies of the messages, and it's a good thing they did, as more than 90 percent of the graffiti has eroded since the ruins were unearthed.

The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________. suggest that 19th-century scholars should have taken more care to preserve the graffiti that once adorned

walls in the ancient city of Pompeii describe both the reason for the destruction of the city of Pompeii and the reason that it remained so well

preserved

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point out why so many of the residents of the ancient city of Pompeii liked to scrawl graffiti on the walls of that city

explain the differences between the type of graffiti found on the walls of Pompeii and modern-day postings found on social media

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word venerable?

reputable insufferable malleable affable

Question 5 Suppose Camila wants to find out about the daily lives of the people who lived in Pompeii before its destruction. She would find most of her information __________.

in a TV program titled "Everyday Life in the City of Pompeii" on a map showing the location of Mount Vesuvius on a webpage describing how people escaped from the city of Pompeii in a documentary about the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history

Question 6 Read this passage from the Article:

The answers date back to 79 CE, when a nearby volcano called Mount Vesuvius violently erupted, destroying Pompeii in a matter of hours. (Incidentally, it was a scrawl on a Pompeian wall that helped archaeologists ascertain when the eruption occurred.)

In this passage, the word ascertain means __________. to predict the outcome of an event to cause confusion or misunderstanding

to deny that something is true to learn or find out information

Question 7 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that modern-day Facebook users have something in common with people who scrawled messages on walls in ancient Pompeii?

So what messages did Pompeians write, exactly? In many ways, they were the same kinds of messages people write today on social media—opinions, grievances, pronouncements of love, consumer reviews, political endorsem*nts, recommendations, advertisem*nts, and advice.

All of this raises some big questions: How did anything as impermanent as charcoal and stucco scratches survive the ravages of time? Better yet, why is so much of Pompeii itself still intact when most of the ancient world has crumbled away?

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Paradoxically, the cause of Pompeii's destruction was also the reason for its preservation: The volcanic debris protected the ruins from the elements until excavations of the site began in the mid-18th century.

In fact, wall graffiti was all over Pompeii—on public buildings, doors, archways, gladiator barracks, water distribution towers, atriums, bathhouses, and on the interior and exterior walls of private homes.

Question 8 Which information is not in the Article?

When the ancient city of Pompeii was covered in ash from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius What kinds of messages were scrawled on the walls of the ancient city of Pompeii Where the many residents of Pompeii fled to when they escaped the city Why the ancient city of Pompeii has been so well preserved right up until modern times

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. People should always find a way to share their thoughts.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Explain what happened to the ancient city of Pompeii in 79 CE and what has been discovered centuries later for readers who are unfamiliar with the story. Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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Soldier in the Wild (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

A Japanese soldier remained hidden on Guam 28 years after World War II ended. When he finally returned to Japan, he was given a hero's welcome. What do you think?

All soldiers are heroes. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: AP Photo This photo of Shoichi Yokoi was taken shortly after his return to civilization in 1972.

TALOFOFO, Guam (Achieve3000, August 27, 2019). When Shoichi Yokoi went into hiding in the jungles of Guam in 1944, little did he know that he would one day emerge a changed man in a changed world. His stay there constitutes one of the strangest footnotes in the history of World War II and a tale of astonishing loyalty.

Yokoi's story began in February 1943, when he was a 27-year-old sergeant in the Imperial Japanese Army, stationed on Guam as part of the Japanese occupation of the island. The occupation turned into evacuation not long after the U.S. military arrived to liberate Guam in 1944. Fearing for his life, Yokoi retreated to the hills of the Talofofo River basin, where he was cut off from civilization and communication.

In August 1945, Emperor Hirohito announced that Japan was surrendering to the Allied Forces, thus bringing the war to a close. Yokoi, however, had no way of knowing this. Neither did about 130 other Japanese soldiers who continued to elude an army that was no longer interested in capturing them, in a war that was no longer being waged. But Yokoi would outlive them all.

Amazingly, he remained in hiding for the next seven years under the misconception that World War II was still raging and American soldiers were still routing the Japanese on Guam and throughout the Pacific Rim.

And that's only the half of it.

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Even after learning that the war had ended—in 1952—Yokoi remained in hiding for another 20 years (two decades!). He spent his days in the well-concealed cave he had made of dirt, bamboo, and reeds and his nights in search of fruit, nuts, fish, and small animals to eat. A tailor by profession, he made new clothes using burlap sacks and tree bark for fabric, coconut and pago fibers for thread, discarded plastic for buttons, and handmade needles to stitch them all together.

A soldier by training and instinct, Yokoi lived in a state of constant vigilance. Even when he was finally "captured" by two fishermen in January 1972, while setting shrimp traps in a river near Talofofo Falls, his impulse was to attack the two younger men. They easily overpowered him, by then a weakened man of 57, and gently delivered him to local authorities.

Throughout his time in isolation, Yokoi had been carefully calculating the days and months and was well aware that 28 years had passed. So what compelled him to stay in hiding for that long, when all he had to do was surrender and board a plane back to his home in Japan? What dint of character convinced him that roughing it in the wild all those years was his one and only option?

The Japanese have a word and an explanation for it—ganbaru, which roughly translates as "enduring adversity without giving in to it." During World War II, the ethos of ganbaru meant that Japanese soldiers fought to the death and that surrendering to the enemy was as shameful and dishonorable as defeat. Indeed, when Yokoi was safely returned to Japan, he declared that he was ashamed to come back to his homeland alive.

Still, Yokoi was accorded a hero's welcome in Tokyo as millions of Japanese watched his return on television. Many of his contemporaries were deeply moved by his unstinting loyalty to time-honored Japanese values and showered him with money, gifts, and praise. Many younger Japanese, however, viewed ganbaru as pointless and Yokoi as a symbol of a vainglorious principle whose time was over.

Up until his death in 1997, Yokoi remembered Guam affectionately and revisited the island on several occasions, including his honeymoon. After all, it had been his home for much of his adult life. Although his cave in Talofofo crumbled long ago, its site still appears on Guam tourist maps, and his clothing and possessions from his time on the island have been exhibited at the Guam Museum and in a small tribute at Jeff's Pirate Cove in Ipan, where Yokoi dined as a free man.

No doubt, history brims with incredible acts of bravery and selflessness during war, but one thing is for sure—Shoichi Yokoi's time on Guam is one for the record books.

Video Credit: AP Archive

Dictionary

ethos (noun) the guiding beliefs of a person, group, or organization vainglorious (adjective) having or showing too much pride in your abilities or achievements

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 According to the Article, what happened as a result of Shoichi Yokoi's safe return to Japan after living so many years undetected in the wilds of Guam?

Yokoi remained in Japan and chose not to revisit Guam, even after an exhibit at the Guam Museum was created in his honor.

Yokoi was given a hero's welcome in Tokyo as many of his contemporaries were deeply moved by his unwavering adherence to time-honored Japanese values.

Yokoi returned the money and gifts that were lavished upon him following his return because he did not feel that he deserved them.

Yokoi was publicly honored by younger Japanese because they viewed his strict adherence to the concept of ganbaru as being worthy of praise.

Question 2 What is this Article mainly about?

Shoichi Yokoi, a former soldier in the Japanese Imperial Army, chose to remain in the jungles of Guam and live off the land from 1944 until his "capture" by two fishermen in January 1972.

Shoichi Yokoi was given a hero's welcome upon his return to Japan in 1972, and many of his contemporaries were so moved by his perseverance that they showered him with money and praise.

Shoichi Yokoi was not initially aware of the fact that Emperor Hirohito announced in August 1945 that his country was surrendering to the Allied Forces, thereby ending World War II.

Shoichi Yokoi, a tailor by profession, made his clothes by using burlap bags and tree bark for fabric, coconut and pago fibers for thread, and handmade needles to stitch them together.

Question 3 Look at the events below. According to the Article, which of these happened third? This question asks about when events happened. It does not ask where in the Article the events appear. Look back at the Article for clues, such as dates.

Shoichi Yokoi's fellow countrymen honored him as a hero and lavished him with money and gifts. Shoichi Yokoi went into hiding in the hills of the Talofofo River basin to avoid American soldiers. Shoichi Yokoi attacked two fishermen who subsequently "captured" him and took him to the local

authorities. Shoichi Yokoi was stationed on the Pacific island of Guam as a sergeant in the Imperial Japanese Army.

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word vainglorious?

egotistical abhorrent devious preposterous

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Question 5 What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

Shoichi Yokoi made the choice to rejoin the Japanese Army after returning to his homeland in January 1972.

Shoichi Yokoi, a tailor by trade, brought several spare uniforms with him when he went into hiding because he wasn't sure how long he'd remain in the wild.

Shoichi Yokoi was ready to return home to Japan in 1952 after learning that World War II had ended years earlier.

Shoichi Yokoi would have remained in hiding even longer had he not been "captured" by two fishermen while setting shrimp traps near Talofofo Falls.

Question 6 The Article states:

Still, Yokoi was accorded a hero's welcome in Tokyo as millions of Japanese watched his return on television. Many of his contemporaries were deeply moved by his unstinting loyalty to time-honored Japanese values and showered him with money, gifts, and praise. Many younger Japanese, however, viewed ganbaru as pointless and Yokoi as a symbol of a vainglorious principle whose time was over.

Why did the author include this passage?

To describe the range of public response to Yokoi's return to Japan in 1972 To point out the problems that Yokoi had in trying to adapt to life in Japan To suggest that most Japanese did not consider Yokoi's exploits to be heroic

To show that Yokoi did not want to return to Japan in spite of the praise he received there

Question 7 Look at this passage from the Article:

Amazingly, he remained in hiding for the next seven years under the misconception that World War II was still raging and American soldiers were still routing the Japanese on Guam and throughout the Pacific Rim.

In this passage, the word misconception means __________. a bitter disagreement a strong wish or hope a wrong or mistaken idea a standard of perfection

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Question 8 Which information is not in the Article?

How Shoichi Yokoi made his clothing from natural elements within his environment Why Shoichi Yokoi decided to retreat to the hills of the Talofofo River basin in 1944 How Shoichi Yokoi came to realize that World War II had ended years earlier What Shoichi Yokoi had to eat in order to survive while hiding out in the wilds of Guam

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. All soldiers are heroes.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Who was Shoichi Yokoi and why did he remain hidden on Guam until 1972? Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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Teen Pilot Breaks World Record (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

In April 2019, 18-year-old Mason Andrews was named the youngest solo pilot to circle the globe. Mason was asked what he would say to kids. Below is his response. What do you think of his statement?

"Anything is possible." • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Used with permission from Mason Andrews Mason Andrews flew this single engine Piper PA-32 plane around the world and set a Guinness World Record.

MONROE, Louisiana (Achieve3000, April 12, 2019). Mason Andrews is studying aviation in college. But word around campus is that the intrepid teenager from the U.S. state of Louisiana has already landed squarely in aviation history.

Don't believe the buzz? In April 2019, Guinness World Records made it official: Mason is now the youngest pilot to have flown solo around the world, breaking the record previously held by Lachlan Smart of Queensland, Australia, who completed a solo flight at age 18 in 2016.

Mason was 18 years and 163 days old—71 days younger than Smart—when he landed his single engine Piper PA-32 plane in Monroe, Louisiana, on October 6, 2018, ending a globe-circling voyage that came with a hefty share of terrifying and turbulent moments.

But we'll get to the nail-biting moments shortly—let's take off at the beginning, shall we?

Mason, who managed to earn his pilot's license at age 17, began formulating his grand plan in November 2017. At first, his goal was to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, but then he thought, why not fly around the world?

"I realized that it was possible, but it would be difficult," he told Achieve3000 when we caught up with him between classes at Louisiana Tech University.

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Convincing his mother and father to permit him to make such a flight would be his first formidable hurdle, but Mason was ready to transform their "nays" into "yeas" by diligently doing his research and presenting them with a meticulous plan.

Still, "I had to ask my dad three or four times before he was like, 'Alright, if we can find a way to come up with the money, we can do it,'" Mason recalled.

Well, with the help of munificent sponsors, the teen pilot was able to embark on his journey in July 2018—and simultaneously raise over $30,000 for MedCamps of Louisiana, which runs free summer camps for children with disabilities!

When Mason said goodbye to his parents and his supportive community at Monroe Regional Airport, he thought he would be gone for about 40 days—but that didn't account for the Category 5 typhoons that would leave Mason grounded in the Philippines for nearly three weeks.

It's just one of the hiccups he encountered during the trip, which ended up taking 180 flight hours over 76 days.

The scariest moment of the entire journey was when Mason found himself in a "really bad monsoon over the Bay of Bengal," he said, adding, "That was very near a deadly situation. There was no turning back because the weather had already built up behind me just as much as it was building up in front of me. So, I was just having to continue straight ahead across the ocean. There's nowhere to land, obviously. I was [hundreds of] miles from the nearest piece of land, let alone an airport."

Luckily, Mason was able to get out of the situation thanks to his prior experience and some assistance from another airliner.

And then came the sandstorm.

"That was my flight from Egypt to Dubai," Mason said. "I was in the sandstorm for like 12 hours in severe turbulence, to the point where I couldn't use my autopilot. I couldn't see anything outside because of the sand, so, I was flying off my instruments alone, and it was extremely hot in the airplane. It was a grueling flight."

Mason admits that he waited until he was home safe and sound before filling his mother in on the more frightening details of his adventure.

Since returning to Louisiana, Mason has been receiving a lot of attention. And while his Guinness World Record for circumnavigating the globe solo made headlines, the record itself isn't as important to Mason as people may think.

"That's really not what the trip was about," he said. "It's how we got the press and the support and what we needed. But at the same time, after I departed on the trip, it was about completing a personal achievement and staying alive."

Now, Mason has some advice for kids who aim high: "My advice…is that anything is possible…I would say that if you have a goal, that you should not stop pursuing that goal until you have no other options to pursue—push and push and push!"

As Mason understands especially well, the sky's the limit.

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Video Credit: Taylor Yakowenko Published on Oct 6, 2018 Edited for length

Dictionary

intrepid (adjective) fearless and courageous meticulous (adjective) careful; mindful of even tiny details munificent (adjective) generous

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What cause and effect relationship is described in this Article?

Because of a severe sandstorm taking place between Egypt and Dubai, Mason Andrews was grounded for three weeks during his trip around the world.

Because Mason Andrews neglected to fully update his mother during his adventures, she has indicated that she would not want him circumnavigating the globe again.

Because he's already made aviation history, officials at Louisiana Tech University, where Mason Andrews is a student, have allowed him to skip some courses in his study of aviation.

Because of the bad weather Mason Andrews experienced throughout his solo flight around the world, the teen pilot encountered some frightening moments.

Question 2 Which of these is most important to include in a summary of this Article?

Before presenting his parents with his plan to fly solo around the world, Mason Andrews did diligent research.

In July 2018, Mason Andrews took off on his journey from Monroe Regional Airport in Monroe, Louisiana.

Guinness World Records confirmed that Mason Andrews broke a record by a mere 71 days. At age 18, Mason Andrews became the youngest solo pilot to circumnavigate the globe.

Question 3 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

Mason Andrews encountered turbulence from a sandstorm that lasted 12 hours during his flight from Egypt to Dubai.

Mason Andrews acted generously when he decided to use his trip to raise money for MedCamps of Louisiana, which offers summer camps for children with disabilities.

Mason Andrews has been receiving attention since he returned to Louisiana and was named a Guinness World Record holder.

Mason Andrews received help from sponsors who enabled him to achieve his goal of flying around the world.

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Question 4 Which is the closest antonym for the word intrepid, as it is used in the Article?

Intelligent Adventurous Insensitive Apprehensive

Question 5 The author probably wrote this Article in order to __________.

Inform readers about an ambitious young man who worked diligently to achieve a challenging goal Advise kids who aim high that breaking a Guinness World Record is the only goal worth achieving Raise awareness for MedCamps of Louisiana, a cause Mason Andrews has requested that people support Suggest that Mason Andrews should have been able to complete his journey in just 40 days, as planned

Question 6 Based on the Article, the reader can infer that __________.

Mason Andrews likely regrets not giving his mother updates of all the frightening moments of his trip, because he would have appreciated her support.

Most students at Louisiana Tech University have probably never heard of Mason Andrews or his record-breaking flight.

It was probably difficult to convince Guinness World Records to confirm that Mason Andrews beat Lachlan Smart's record.

It is unlikely that Mason Andrews will stop dreaming big and attempting to achieve future goals now that he has flown solo around the world.

Question 7 The Article states:

Convincing his mother and father to permit him to make such a flight would be his first formidable hurdle, but Mason was ready to transform their "nays" into "yeas" by diligently doing his research and presenting them with a meticulous plan.

Which would be the closest synonym for the word diligently, as it is used above? Thoroughly Arrogantly Modestly Carelessly

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Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Mason Andrews' parents had to be convinced to allow Mason to make a solo flight circumnavigating the world?

Mason, who managed to earn his pilot's license at age 17, began formulating his grand plan in November 2017. At first, his goal was to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, but then he thought, why not fly around the world?

It's just one of the hiccups he encountered during the trip, which ended up taking 180 flight hours over 76 days.

Still, "I had to ask my dad three or four times before he was like, 'Alright, if we can find a way to come up with the money, we can do it,'" Mason recalled.

When Mason said goodbye to his parents and his supportive community at Monroe Regional Airport, he thought he would be gone for about 40 days—but that didn't account for the Category 5 typhoons that would leave Mason grounded in the Philippines for nearly three weeks.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. "Anything is possible."

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Describe Mason Andrews. Next, explain what he did. Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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The Truth About Dogs (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

A new museum exhibit studies the relationship between people and dogs. What do you think of this quote by humorist Josh Billings?

"A dog is the only thing on Earth that loves you more than he loves himself." • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: AP/Richard Vogel An interactive exhibit at the California Science Center in Los Angeles shows people what a dog's vision is like.

LOS ANGELES, California (Achieve3000, May 5, 2019). Dogs. They're our four-legged BFFs, capable of melting our hearts with a loving look, a sweet snuggle, or a giddy greeting at the door. But who domesticated whom, and just what accounts for the affinity and compatibility between dogs and humans?

The California Science Center has spent the past five years sniffing out answers to these and hundreds of other canine queries, and its conclusions are being revealed in an exhibition called "Dogs! A Science Tail," which opened on March 9, 2019.

"[The exhibition] is really not about just dogs and science, [but] about how dogs and humans are both social animals. About how dogs and humans have evolved together over thousands of years," said Jeffrey Rudolph, the center's president and a dog devotee.

"Dogs! A Science Tail" includes interactive exhibits, live demonstrations, games, artwork, and more and will be housed at the center before it travels to museums across the U.S. in 2020. But don't fret if you can't get to experience it in person—we've got you covered. Here's a glimpse of what the exhibition teaches humans about our canine companions:

1. They have a pee-culiar interest.

Ever wonder what dogs are really sniffing when they whiff away at fire hydrants? The exhibition includes a replica of a fire hydrant—a popular spot for dogs to relieve themselves, as you may know—and with the push of a button, you can smell what a dog smells.

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"We just smell pee," Rudolph said with a laugh, but by smelling the urine of a fellow pooch, dogs can glean information such as "what dog was there, what time they were there, and actually which direction they were going."

It's one of the ways dogs can evaluate how safe the surroundings are, and how they manage to mark time without wristwatches or smartphones.

2. They're doggone smart.

Dogs may look a little goofy when they're loping around, but they're more astute than some people think.

"They have an amazing ability to learn information," Rudolph said, noting that the 300 million sensory receptor sites they carry in their noses easily eclipse our 6 million.

Dogs can also determine what a person has just eaten by licking the person's hand, and they can hear sounds so subtle that we're oblivious to them.

"In a bedroom, they can hear a termite scratching on the wall," Rudolph said.

The exhibition also has stations that allow people to see the way dogs see—with limited color vision, but a heightened motion sense.

3. They're heroic.

Did you know that some superheroes don't wear capes, but collars?

Thanks to dogs' spot-on senses, an avalanche rescue dog can sniff out a person buried in snow in a minute's time, while its handlers stand there without a clue! And it can sniff out bombs people would never find until they detonated.

But those are the highly trained working dogs, like the ones shown in the center's Imax Theatre, where the film Superpower Dogs will play throughout the exhibition's run, allowing viewers to watch dogs from around the world save people from drowning off the coast of Italy, rescue people trapped in collapsed buildings, and even track down Kenyan poachers preying on endangered elephants and rhinos. 4. Yes, they love us, too.

Dogs give us plenty of reasons to love them, but do they love us back, or are they just trying to wheedle another treat when they open those big puppy-dog eyes of theirs and give us that heart-melting look?

"If you look a dog in the eye, a dog will look back at you, and you will produce oxytocin," explained Diane Perlov, senior vice president for exhibits at the California Science Center. Oxytocin is a hormone (sometimes called the "love hormone") released in our brains that plays an important role in bonding and social interactions.

"And," Perlov adds, "the dog will produce oxytocin in his own body from looking back at you. It's a mutual affection."

5. They go way back with humans.

The dog-human thing really is a love affair. But when and how did it start?

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Scientists can't quite figure that out. They know dogs descended from wolves and that wolves and people crossed paths more than 10,000 years ago, says Perlov. Wolves and people could each see that the other was pretty good at hunting for food. But did the wolves walk up and offer their help in that endeavor, or did people make the first move?

Whoever did, they created an enduring bond: best friends fur-ever.

The Associated Press contributed to this story.

Dictionary

affinity (noun) a liking for someone or something astute (adjective) shrewd; clever detonate (verb) to explode

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 According to the Article, why do dogs smell the urine of other dogs?

Dogs smell the urine of other dogs because they have as many as 300 million sensory receptors in their noses, so they are compelled to sniff strong scents.

Smelling urine provides dogs with important information about when other dogs were in the area, where they were going, and whether the surroundings are safe.

Dogs smell the urine of other dogs because they have descended from wolves and therefore have many of the traits and qualities that wolves have.

Smelling urine is one of the many ways dogs sharpen their sense of smell so that they can be more useful to humans who are in dangerous situations.

Question 2 Which of these is most important to include in a summary of this Article?

The California Science Center is presenting its findings about canine behavior in an exhibition that will travel to museums across the country in 2020.

Visitors to the California Science Center can watch a live-action movie about canine heroism in the center's Imax Theatre.

Visitors to the California Science Center will discover that a hormone called oxytocin is released in a dog's brain in much the same way that it is released in a human's brain.

The canine exhibition at the California Science Center features an interactive replica of a fire hydrant that allows humans to smell what dogs smell at the popular canine spot.

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Question 3 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

The exhibition at the California Science Center has stations that allow people to experience sights and smells the way dogs experience them.

The film Superpower Dogs shows canines from around the world rescuing people from collapsed buildings and other life-threatening situations.

Dogs and humans have evolved together over thousands of years, but it's still unclear how the bond between the two species began.

Dogs are adorable when they lick our faces, give us a heart-melting look, or rush up to us the moment we come through the door.

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word affinity, as it is used in the Article?

Moderation Animosity Affection Intensity

Question 5 The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

Dogs are only capable of behaving heroically because people have trained them to perform lifesaving tasks. Since their color vision is limited, dogs do not largely depend on their sense of sight. The strong bond between dogs and humans probably formed because the two species helped one another

with survival. The more domesticated dogs become, the less need they will have for sniffing fire hydrants.

Question 6 The author probably wrote this Article in order to __________.

Explain how dogs are trained to sniff out bombs and rescue people from dangerous situations Discuss the similarities and differences in the way dogs and people experience affection

Present some of the findings on display at the California Science Center's canine exhibition Describe when and how dogs and humans first developed a relationship

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Question 7 The Article states:

"They have an amazing ability to learn information," Rudolph said, noting that the 300 million sensory receptor sites they carry in their noses easily eclipse our 6 million.

Which would be the closest synonym for the word eclipse, as it is used above?

Sustain Surpass Maximize Underestimate

Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that the canine exhibition at the California Science Center attempts to show people how dogs experience the world?

The exhibition also has stations that allow people to see the way dogs see—with limited color vision, but a heightened motion sense.

The California Science Center has spent the past five years sniffing out answers to these and hundreds of other canine queries, and its conclusions are being revealed in an exhibition called "Dogs! A Science Tail," which opened on March 9, 2019.

But who domesticated whom, and just what accounts for the affinity and compatibility between dogs and humans?

Dogs may look a little goofy when they're loping around, but they're more astute than some people think.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. "A dog is the only thing on Earth that loves you more than he loves himself."

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Retell this news story as if you were telling a friend all about the "Dogs! A Science Tail" exhibition. Use descriptive words and phrases from the Article in your response.

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Welcome to Batuu (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

It's been said that Disney parks are "the happiest" and "most magical" places on Earth. Now, the Disney parks in California and Florida have added an attraction from "a galaxy far, far away"—Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge. What do you think?

Disney parks are "the happiest" and "most magical" places in the galaxy. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo Credit: Disney Parks A full-size replica of the famous Millennium Falcon starship is just one of the attractions at Disney's Star Wars:

Galaxy's Edge.

ORLANDO, Florida (Achieve3000, September 26, 2019). Disney parks may be "the happiest" and "most magical" places on Earth, but they have some lands that are out of this world—in a galaxy far, far away! And unlike other parks where cast members are on the same team, at Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge, you've gotta choose your alliances.

Before Star Wars fans' dreams came true in 2019, with land openings at Disneyland in California and Disney's Hollywood Studios in Florida, 4,000 people sweated the small stuff for five years to create these twin attractions. It was the most extensive single-theme expansion in Disney history, and not even the most minute feature was overlooked. After all, Star Wars lovers are Jedi masters when it comes to the details! That's partly why the setting isn't from any of the movies, because fans know they aren't part of those stories, but on the planet of Batuu—a hot spot for traders, smugglers, and intergalactic explorers—a whole new narrative unfolds under its three suns.

Batuu wasn't planned with just Star Wars aficionados in mind, though. By creating a new planet, Disney put longtime fans and newbies on the same page, so everyone can be a part of the story—even if they don't speak Wookiee!

To bring Batuu to life, Disney had to build a new world from the ground up. From the land to the rocks and the trees, designers used all their best tricks to create a 14-acre (5.67-hectare) landscape with a visible history, weathered by age and the elements—you know, like any other real place! They based it on real

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places, too. The forest where the Resistance hides out was inspired by Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona as well as locations in Morocco and Turkey, where crews took thousands of pictures for inspiration. Buildings got the same meticulous dedication, as some were built to look like leftovers from ancient cultures, while others were designed to appear new and stark against the antique relics, marking the emergence of the First Order and the Resistance.

With the scene set, Disney cranked it up another notch so that once you're in Batuu, you're in Batuu. The food, the merchandise, the workers—it's all part of the story—so guests feel like they're really exploring an alien planet, which means you shouldn't expect to see Mickey ears or logos on the merchandise. In fact, the markets only have stuff Batuu merchants would be hawking, like droid parts, lightsabers, and Jedi robes.

And you never know who you might meet.

A visit to Batuu is like being dropped into a live-action role-play game where everyone has unique backgrounds, motives, and allegiances. It took three years to design the costumes and accessories for the cast members—the people working the rides, stores, and restaurants—and, in a Disney first, they are each tasked with assembling their own look and developing their own back stories as well. They aren't Earthlings working a cool gig, they're Batuu through and through and, if asked, they've never even heard of Earth!

The interaction is a big part of the fun. Visitors may be questioned by a stormtrooper, a Resistance spy might ask them to deliver a message, or they can sign up for a job to help a cause or work as a double agent!

And of course there are the rides, including the Millennium Falcon, a full-size facsimile of the iconic Star Wars spaceship, aka "the fastest hunk of junk in the galaxy," and Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance, which has four types of ride technologies and uses 5 million lines of code!

For visitors who want more interplanetary playtime, Disney created the Galactic Starcruiser in Florida, a two-night, choose-your-own-adventure cruise through outer space, including lightsaber training and secret meetings.

You think you're ready for some stellar interstellar fun? You know what they say: May the force be with you!

Video credit: Courtesy Disney, with music by Valeriano Chiaravalle/proudmusiclibrary.com

Dictionary

facsimile (noun) an exact copy meticulous (adjective) very careful about doing something in an extremely accurate and exact way

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Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 What is this Article mainly about?

Disney attempts to personalize each visitor's adventure at Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge by integrating interactional experiences such as cast members asking visitors to do simple tasks like delivering messages, providing visitors with opportunities to sign up to further a cause, or enabling them to work in intriguing jobs like being a double agent.

Because of the fact that Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge is Disney's most extensive single-theme expansion in its history,4,000 people worked for five years developing every minute detail of the new attraction before opening its doors for visitors at the notorious Disneyland in California and Disney's Hollywood Studios in Florida.

In 2019, Disney opened Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge, the latest land in Disney's Hollywood Studios in Florida and at Disneyland in California where all aspects of the new attraction—its appearance, workers, food, and products—are exhaustively designed to induce the perception among visitors that they're genuinely exploring the alien planet of Batuu.

Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge has an authentically sized replica of The Millennium Falcon and a ride called Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance which integrates four innovative types of ride technologies that, in aggregate, require 5 million lines of code to ensure that visitors experience the Star Wars rides as if what is perceived while on them is real.

Question 2 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

To keep the experience in Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge in line with the First Order and the Resistance, structures with a contemporary design are intermingled with those that mimic relics.

Visitors to Batuu are tasked with choosing which of the opposing teams of cast members they will align themselves with during their visit to Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge.

Since rides are a primary source of entertainment and attraction for younger visitors, kids will have the most fun visiting Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge.

Disney has traditionally dictated the appearance of employees operating the rides, working in retail, and serving visitors in restaurants according to the theme of each unique land.

Question 3 The Article states:

That's partly why the setting isn't from any of the movies, because fans know they aren't part of those stories, but on the planet of Batuu—a hot spot for traders, smugglers, and intergalactic explorers—a whole new narrative unfolds under its three suns. Batuu wasn't planned with just Star Wars aficionados in mind, though. By creating a new planet, Disney put longtime fans and newbies on the same page, so everyone can be a part of the story—even if they don't speak Wookiee!

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The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________.

describe the types of visitors that tend to be drawn to Galaxy's Edge to participate in the fresh narrative that is played out on Batuu

inform that visitors to Galaxy's Edge should not expect to understand the Wookiee language used in everything that is written or spoken in the land

emphasize that Galaxy's Edge was designed to ensure enjoyment for all visitors experiencing life on the planet of Batuu, regardless of their familiarity with Star Wars

explain that every aspect of Galaxy's Edge was developed to be true to Star Wars since some visitors are Jedi masters about the details of the movies

Question 4 Which is the closest synonym for the word meticulous?

instantaneous conscientious supernatural indispensable

Question 5 The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

more people have been participating in the choose-your-own adventure cruise Galactic Starcruiser instead of visiting Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge

Disney believes that Galaxy's Edge's popularity will draw enough visitors to their parks in California and Florida to justify their time and effort in developing the lands

the next Star Wars movie will include traders, smugglers, and explorers from the planet of Batuu in its plot Disney is shifting its focus from themed rides to authentic role-play interactions at all of its other parks in

California and Florida

Question 6 This Article would be most useful as a source for a student research project on __________.

advancements in ride technology since Disney opened its first park until now features of Star Wars movies that make them appealing across age groups how weathering creates a visual history in places like the Petrified Forest National Park strategies Disney uses to provide theme park visitors with unique and realistic experiences

Question 7 The Article states:

Buildings got the same meticulous dedication, as some were built to look like leftovers from ancient cultures, while others were designed to appear new and stark against the antique relics, marking the emergence of the First Order and the Resistance.

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Which is the closest antonym for the word stark? ornate defensive

feudal enviable

Question 8 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Disney wanted Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge to look like an actual planet to visitors?

The forest where the Resistance hides out was inspired by Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona as well as locations in Morocco and Turkey, where crews took thousands of pictures for inspiration. Buildings got the same meticulous dedication, as some were built to look like leftovers from ancient cultures, while others were designed to appear new and stark against the antique relics, marking the emergence of the First Order and the Resistance.

Before Star Wars fans' dreams came true in 2019, with land openings at Disneyland in California and Disney's Hollywood Studios in Florida, 4,000 people sweated the small stuff for five years to create these twin attractions. It was the most extensive single-theme expansion in Disney history, and not even the most minute feature was overlooked. After all, Star Wars lovers are Jedi masters when it comes to the details!

And of course there are the rides, including the Millennium Falcon, a full-size facsimile of the iconic Star Wars spaceship, aka "the fastest hunk of junk in the galaxy," and Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance, which has four types of ride technologies and uses 5 million lines of code!

A visit to Batuu is like being dropped into a live-action role-play game where everyone has unique backgrounds, motives, and allegiances. It took three years to design the costumes and accessories for the cast members—the people working the rides, stores, and restaurants—and, in a Disney first, they are each tasked with assembling their own look and developing their own back stories as well.

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. Disney parks are "the happiest" and "most magical" places in the galaxy.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Imagine that you are telling a friend about Disney's new Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge lands in California and Florida. What would you say? Include descriptive words and phrases from the Article in your response.

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Women Adventurers (1280L) Step 1: Before Reading Poll (Write Your Answer)

Centuries ago, women were expected to stay home and raise families. But some brave women chose to take off on amazing adventures around the world. What do you think?

People should live life the way they want to, not how they're expected to. • Do you agree or disagree?

Step 2: Article (Read the Article)

Photo credit: Left to right: Cristoforo Dall'Acqua, Wellcome Collection, Library of Congress Left to right: Jeanne Baret, who was the first woman to sail around the globe. Lady Hester Stanhope, who led

an archaeological dig in the Middle East. And Nellie Bly, a respected journalist who traveled around the world in just 72 days.

RED BANK, New Jersey (Achieve3000, January 31, 2020). Nowadays, women sail solo around the world, bicycle across continents, and travel into space in search of adventure. But this kind of female moxie was virtually unheard of centuries ago, when women were expected to stay at home and raise families. That, however, didn't stop some women from taking off and blazing trails. Take Jeanne Baret (1740-1807), a French botanist and the first woman to circumnavigate the globe. The voyage was undertaken by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who invited several French scientists to join him on his ship, the Étoile, in December 1766, for France's first such expedition. One of the invitees was Philibert Commerson, royal botanist and naturalist, and Baret was his assistant. But Baret wasn't permitted to go because of a royal ordinance that forbade women from traveling on French navy vessels. So she disguised herself as a man, called herself Jean, and sailed away. During the journey, Baret helped Commerson collect over 6,000 botanical specimens. And some historians credit her, and her alone, with discovering the bougainvillea plant in Brazil and bringing its seeds back to Europe. Even so, Commerson received all the credit. And when shipmates on the Étoile discovered that Jean was really Jeanne, it's believed that Commerson lied, proclaiming he'd been duped as well. To this day, 70 plants, insects, and mollusks bear Commerson's name only. There is, however, one plant named after Baret, an honor that was finally bestowed two centuries after her death.

British socialite Lady Hester Stanhope (1776-1839) was also never one to be bound by the conventions that restricted other women of her time. She acted in ways that women rarely if ever did, like traveling throughout the Middle East by herself, wearing men's clothing, riding a horse astride rather than sidesaddle,

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hobnobbing with sheikhs, and creating lots of commotion wherever she went. During her lifetime, Stanhope accomplished something that only men had achieved up until then: She organized an archaeological dig in the Middle East, which made her a groundbreaker in every sense of the word.

Stanhope's adventure began when the Turkish government granted her permission to excavate in Ashkelon, an ancient city where astonishing treasures were supposedly buried. The Turks routinely denied other Westerners this request, but Stanhope was a persuasive woman. Unfortunately, she never found any treasures there, but she did unearth rare antiquities, and her dig sparked international archaeological interest in the region.

Nellie Bly (1864-1922) was one of the nation's foremost journalists, male or female, of her era. This was a singular accomplishment, given the all-male club that was late 19th- and early 20th-century journalism. In 1887, Bly's editor challenged her to write an expose´ about a notorious mental hospital on Blackwell's Island in New York. Bly disguised herself as a mentally ill inmate for ten days and wrote a harrowing six-part series that made her famous and paved the way for other female investigative reporters.

Two years later, Bly's taste for adventure kicked into high gear when she read Jules Verne's 1873 novel, Around the World in 80 Days, in which the male protagonist accepts a challenge to travel the globe in so many days. Bly was convinced she could beat this fictional record, and she did, finishing the trip in just 72 days and setting a world record in the process. Later in life, the indefatigable Bly returned to journalism, covering the women's suffrage movement and World War I.

Three women, three lives packed with adventure, and there are many others as well, including Isabella Byrd and Freya Stark (explorers), Annie Smith Peck (mountaineer), and Bessie Coleman (aviator). They all lived life exactly the way they wanted to live it, not the way they were expected to.

Dictionary

indefatigable (adjective) able to work or continue for a very long time without becoming tired protagonist (noun) the main character in a novel, play, movie, etc. sheikh (noun) an Arab chief, ruler, or prince

Step 3: Activity (Answer the Questions)

Question 1 According to the Article, which of these happened first? This question asks about when events happened. It does not ask where in the Article the events appear. Reread the Article for clues, such as dates.

A British socialite petitioned the Turkish government to let her excavate an ancient city. A French female botanist became the first woman in history to sail completely around the world. A woman disguised herself as a mentally ill inmate to write six articles about a mental hospital. A female journalist traveled around the world in just 72 days, setting a world record.

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Question 2 Which of these is most important to include in a summary of the Article?

Nowadays, it's not completely unheard of for very adventurous women to sail solo around the world, bicycle across continents, and even travel into outer space.

Philibert Commerson, a royal botanist and naturalist, was invited to take part in a scientific expedition aboard the French navy vessel Étoile in December 1766.

Nellie Bly's harrowing six-part expose´ on life inside a notorious mental hospital on Blackwell's Island in New York paved the way for other female investigative reporters.

In centuries past, women were expected to stay home and raise families, but that didn't stop three daring women from blazing trails of their own and embarking on some amazing adventures.

Question 3 The Article states:

Stanhope's adventure began when the Turkish government granted her permission to excavate in Ashkelon, an ancient city where astonishing treasures were supposedly buried. The Turks routinely denied other Westerners this request, but Stanhope was a persuasive woman.

The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________.

suggest that Lady Hester Stanhope was a very convincing woman who refused to take "no" for an answer say that women were not allowed to take part in archaeological studies in Turkey in the 18th and 19th

centuries describe the positive effects that an Englishwoman had on archaeological studies undertaken around the

world point out the fact that Lady Hester Stanhope unearthed a number of treasures and rare antiquities in Turkey

Question 4 Which of these is a statement of opinion?

French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville invited several French scientists to join him on a voyage of scientific discovery aboard the Étoile in 1766.

Jules Verne's 1873 novel, Around the World in 80 Days, inspired female journalist Nellie Bly to take her own journey around the world.

It wasn't wise for Jeanne Baret to disguise herself as a man on a voyage aboard the Étoile because it was almost certain she would have been found out sooner or later.

Lady Hester Stanhope traveled throughout the Middle East wearing men's clothing, riding a horse astride, and hobnobbing with sheiks along the way.

Question 5 Which two words are the closest antonyms? Only some of these words are used in the Article.

hobnob and fraternize indefatigable and lethargic bestow and lavish harrowing and appalling

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Question 6 Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that women were not always publicly acknowledged for their significant contributions in the past?

British socialite Lady Hester Stanhope (1776-1839) was also never one to be bound by the conventions that restricted other women of her time. She acted in ways that women rarely if ever did, like traveling throughout the Middle East by herself, wearing men's clothing, riding a horse astride rather than sidesaddle, hobnobbing with sheikhs, and creating lots of commotion wherever she went. During her lifetime, Stanhope accomplished something that only men had achieved up until then: She organized an archaeological dig in the Middle East, which made her a groundbreaker in every sense of the word.

Two years later, Bly's taste for adventure kicked into high gear when she read Jules Verne's 1873 novel, Around the World in 80 Days, in which the male protagonist accepts a challenge to travel the globe in so many days. Bly was convinced she could beat this fictional record, and she did, finishing the trip in just 72 days and setting a world record in the process. Later in life, the indefatigable Bly returned to journalism, covering the women's suffrage movement and World War I.

Stanhope's adventure began when the Turkish government granted her permission to excavate in Ashkelon, an ancient city where astonishing treasures were supposedly buried. The Turks routinely denied other Westerners this request, but Stanhope was a persuasive woman. Unfortunately, she never found any treasures there, but she did unearth rare antiquities, and her dig sparked international archaeological interest in the region.

During the journey, Baret helped Commerson collect over 6,000 botanical specimens. And some historians credit her, and her alone, with discovering the bougainvillea plant in Brazil and bringing its seeds back to Europe. Even so, Commerson received all the credit. And when shipmates on the Étoile discovered that Jean was really Jeanne, it's believed that Commerson lied, proclaiming he'd been duped as well. To this day, 70 plants, insects, and mollusks bear Commerson's name only.

Question 7 Read this passage from the Article:

Nowadays, women sail solo around the world, bicycle across continents, and travel into space in search of adventure. But this kind of female moxie was virtually unheard of centuries ago, when women were expected to stay at home and raise families. That, however, didn't stop some women from taking off and blazing trails.

In this passage, the word moxie means __________. fortitude or determination nonchalance or indifference cowardice or dismay benevolence or goodwill

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Question 8 Which information is not in the Article?

Who named a plant after Jeanne Baret two centuries after her death Why Jeanne Baret was not allowed to take part in a voyage on the Étoile What project Lady Stanhope was able to get permission to undertake What record-setting feat journalist Nellie Bly was able to accomplish

Step 4: After Reading Poll (Did you change your mind?)

Now that you have read the article, indicate whether you agree or disagree with this statement. People should live life the way they want to, not how they're expected to.

• Agree• Disagree

Step 5: Thought Question (Write Your Response)

Explain one character trait that describes Jeanne Baret, Lady Hester Stanhope, and Nellie Bly. What actions by these women support this trait? Include facts and details from the Article in your response.

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Lexile 1280

ANSWER KEY

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Ancient Lines in the Sand Answer key Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

A The true meaning of the Nazca Lines, which are found in southern Peru and form images of plants, animals, humanoids, imaginary beings, and straight and squiggly lines etched onto the desert floor, remains open to speculation to this day. Question 2

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

D The Nazca Lines obviously formed a kind of ancient agricultural calendar because the people who created them would not go to such trouble for anything but very practical reasons. Question 3

Why did the author include this passage?

A To explain how a pre-Incan civilization was able to create images on the desert floor that are only discernable from a distance Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word denote?

C designate Question 5

What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

D Some of the Nazca Lines are now so faded that they cannot even be recognized from the window of an airplane. Question 6

According to the Article, which of these happened last?

D A geoglyph of a human-like being with many eyes, mouths, and limbs was discovered. Question 7

In this passage, the word longevity means __________.

D the length of time that something lasts Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that the Nazca Lines might have served more than one purpose?

D The most recent research suggests that the geoglyphs figured into specific rituals for rain and crop fertility. Certain geoglyphs may have denoted where the rituals were being conducted, while others were more like signposts directing travelers to those ceremonial places.

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Animated Favorites Get Real Answer key Question 1

According to the Article, what is one reason that the new live-action blockbusters are so popular with fans?

A Adults who grew up watching animated versions of the movies enjoy the sense of nostalgia that they get from watching the new crop of live-action movies. Question 2

What is this Article mainly about?

B Studios have stumbled onto a winning cinematic formula by making live-action remakes of their animated predecessors but with greater diversity and stronger female characters than ever before. Question 3

Which of these statements is contrary to the ideas presented in this Article?

D Live-action movies have proven universally popular among theater-going audiences around the world, as films such as A Wrinkle in Time and Tomorrowland have clearly demonstrated. Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word predecessor?

D antecedent

Question 5

What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

C The original animated version of Disney's Mulan did not correctly portray some of the events from Chinese history. Question 6

Why did the author include this passage?

B To point out the main reason why studios have chosen to produce remakes of some of the classic animated films of the past Question 7

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that a movie's popularity can be enhanced when moviegoers can identify with characters in the film?

C Treating their golden oldies to a modern makeover also gives studios a chance to make them more inclusive. Diversity plays a starring role in Disney's latest remakes, so more kids are seeing characters on the big screen who look like them. In Aladdin, Egyptian-Canadian actor Mena Massoud plays the lovable hero and African American actor and rapper Will Smith is the wisecracking Genie. And, as just about everybody and their pet crustacean knows, African American singer and actress Halle Bailey landed the part of Ariel in The Little Mermaid. Question 8

In this passage, the word inclusive means __________.

B open to everyone without any limitations

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Bubble Tea Is Blowing Up Answer key

Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

C Bubble tea, a sweet beverage typically made from tea, milk, ice, and tapioca pearls, originated in Taiwan in the 1980s but has now become popular in the United States and many other places. Question 2

Which is the closest antonym for the word adamant, as it is used in the Article?

D Acquiescent Question 3

Look at the events below. Which of these must have happened second?

B A combination drink and snack made by adding ice and tapioca pearls to a mixture of tea and milk or cream became a hit in Taiwan. Question 4

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

B Bubble tea toppings like almond jelly and pudding are tastier than toppings like chia seeds and red beans because they are sweeter. Question 5

Suppose Rosa wants to find out about bubble tea shops in the United States. She would find most of her information __________.

C In an article entitled "Bubble Tea Takes America by Storm" Question 6

Which would be the closest synonym for the word innovative, as it is used above?

C Ingenious Question 7

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that bubble tea is now weaving its way into the fabric of American life?

A A bubble tea shop can be a great place to chill out while you enjoy your concoction. In fact, for many people, the fun, relaxing atmosphere is as much of a draw as the bubble tea itself. In Southern California, for example, regular customers, especially high school and college students, go to their favorite bubble tea shop to hang out with friends, play games, or study. For these young people, the shops are an important part of their social lives. Question 8

The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

A Ordering a cup of bubble tea can be a baffling experience, especially for those who have never ordered it before.

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Cooking Up Native Traditions Answer key

Question 1

Based on information in the Article, in what way do traditional native cuisine and the food commonly eaten today by Native Americans contrast?

B Foods provided to Native Americans today are higher in fats and sodium than traditional native cuisine. Question 2

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

B Although the government meant to do the right thing, it didn't really help anyone when it gave free canned beans, boxed rice, powdered milk, and vegetable oil to Native Americans.. Question 3

Why did the author include this passage?

C To suggest that the government has actually contributed to the health problems of some Native Americans Question 4

Which two words are the closest synonyms?

B innumerable and myriad Question 5

The reader can predict from the Article that __________.

C more and more people will become familiar with the benefits of an indigenous diet through the work of NATIFS and The Sioux Chef Question 6

Which information is not in the Article?

C Why it is so difficult to find indigenous ingredients, like hyssop, cedar, and bergamot Question 7

In this passage, the word forage means __________.

D to search for something to eat Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Sean Sherman actively sought out the help of others when he wanted to learn more about traditional Native American foods?

D Determined to find answers, Sherman met with community elders and spoke with Native American chefs and historians. He learned how his ancestors foraged, grew, hunted, fished, preserved, and prepared their food. He discovered that reclaiming an understanding of Native American foodways meant utilizing local plants and other natural ingredients in the environment

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Defying Gravity Answer key Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

B With an abundance of physical strength, talent, and persistence, Simone Biles overcame obstacles and adversity to become what many consider to be the greatest gymnast in the world. Question 2

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

D Although her hard work and persistence have no doubt contributed to her phenomenal performances, Simone Biles' natural physical ability has been the true key to her success. Question 3

The Article states: But Biles' disappointment pushed her to work that much harder, and soon enough her tenacity began to pay off. In 2013, she was named as a replacement gymnast when two members of the U.S. Women's Gymnastics Team withdrew due to injuries. Biles was to replace none other than Olympic gold medalist Kyla Ross, so you could say she had big shoes to fill, but then again, gymnasts usually perform barefoot!

Why did the author include this passage?

D To show how Simone Biles was able to overcome a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure and achieve a coveted spot on the U.S. Women's Gymnastics Team Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word impede?

D fetter Question 5

What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

C Gymnast Simone Biles doesn't give up easily even when faced with what she describes as a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure.. Question 6

Which information is not in the Article?

A Why Simone Biles didn't finish higher than 14th at the 2011 U.S. Junior Championships Question 7

In this passage, the word resolute means __________.

C having or showing a lot of determination Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Simone Biles faced difficulties on her road to gymnastic success?

B In 2011, she finished 14th at the U.S. Junior Championships, after which the U.S. women's junior national team was named. Thirteen gymnasts made the team, meaning Biles missed by one spot—a defeat she describes in her autobiography, Courage to Soar: A Body in Motion, A Life in Balance, as a demoralizing, heartbreaking failure.

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The Early-Late Debate Answer key Question 1

What cause and effect relationship is described in this Article?

D If all schools in a district start around the same time, the cost of providing buses and drivers will increase. Question 2

What is this Article mainly about?

A Some schools in the U.S. are moving to later start times, but there's ongoing debate about whether starting school later will make a difference in students' health and success at school and whether the predicted benefits justify the problems caused by implementing the shift. Question 3

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

B Adolescents with later school start times will take advantage of the additional time for sleeping in the morning by staying up later at night. Question 4

Which two words are the closest antonyms?

D deprivation and indulgence Question 5

Which of these statements is contrary to the ideas presented in the Article?

C The amount of time that adolescents spend sleeping is more important than what time of day they sleep.

Question 6

The Article states: What's more, sleep deprivation puts students at risk of developing serious physical and mental health issues, like eating disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular problems, anxiety, and depression. Academic performance is affected, too—it's hard to learn when you're nodding off at your desk!

The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________.

D emphasize how important sleep is for adolescents Question 7

The Article states: But not everyone concurs that starting the school day later is a smart way to go. Opponents argue there's no guarantee that students will get more sleep. (A law that mandated bedtimes would be a real nightmare, right?!)

Which is the closest synonym for the word mandated?

B ordained Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that it's too soon to tell whether or not students will benefit from a later school start time?

D Opponents argue there's no guarantee that students will get more sleep. (A law that mandated bedtimes would be a real nightmare, right?!) Although data suggest students do get more sleep when schools start later, additional research is needed. And schools that start later will finish later, too, leaving students with less time for things like sports, jobs, chores, homework, and—last but not least—fun.

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Give Me S'more! Answer key Question 1

According to the Article, why were marshmallows once considered a rare luxury?

B The process for making marshmallows was complicated and involved pouring and molding each individual marshmallow by hand. Question 2

Which of these is most important to include in the summary of the Article?

C Making a s'more involves roasting a marshmallow over a fire and sandwiching it and a piece of chocolate between graham crackers, but nobody knows who invented the treat. Question 3

Which is the closest antonym for the word delectable, as it is used in the Article?

D Unsavory Question 4

The Article says all of the following except __________.

C Graham crackers, originally created in the late 1800s using coarse whole wheat flour, have become more popular with the addition of molasses and sugar. Question 5

In the second-to-last paragraph, the author presents information regarding s'more-inspired snacks and microwave cooking processes in order to __________.

A Demonstrate the popularity of s'mores among consumers and provide readers with viable alternatives to traditional s'more making Question 6

Which two words are the closest antonyms?

C Enamored and disenchanted Question 7

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that chocolate was not initially cultivated to create desserts?

D For 3,000 years, Mesoamericans made chocolate from cacao seeds, like we do, but while they may have added other ingredients to the cacao, they didn't add sweetener, and the resulting product was dark, grainy, and somewhat bitter. Question 8

The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

C S'mores are a relatively quick and easy dessert that even the most inexperienced cooks can make.

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Global Game Fame Answer key

Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

C Every year, The Strong National Museum of Play inducts video games that have had a substantial influence on the gaming industry into its World Video Game Hall of Fame. Question 2

Which is the closest antonym for the word hallowed, as it is used in the Article?

A Abominable Question 3

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

C Video games that offer continuous action such as Super Mario Kart are more enjoyable to play than static-screen games like Microsoft Solitaire. Question 4

Based on information in the Article, in what way do Super Mario Kart and Microsoft Solitaire contrast?

B Only Microsoft Solitaire was designed to teach players a valuable computer skill. Question 5

Which would be the closest antonym for the word archaic, as it is used above?

B Contemporary Question 6

Why did the author include this passage?

C To describe The Strong National Museum of Play's standards for selecting inductees into the World Video Game Hall of Fame Question 7

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that a game should have significantly impacted the gaming industry in order to be inducted into the hall of fame?

A Microsoft Solitaire, for instance, has likely been installed on more than 1 billion computers around the world since 1991. Based on a centuries-old card game, it was both popular and influential, and even taught computer users how to use a new device—the mouse. Question 8

Based on the Article, the reader can predict that __________.

C Next year's inductees into the World Video Game Hall of Fame may not be the most popular games available at the time.

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Good, Bad, or Ugly? Answer key Question 1

According to the Article, what is one reason why skeptics believe ugly produce companies aren't being completely forthcoming in their messaging?

C Ugly produce companies may fail to mention that ugly fruits and vegetables are also utilized on farms and in the food industry. Question 2

Which of these is most important to include in a summary of this Article?

B Ugly produce start-ups say their mission is to prevent billions of pounds of imperfect produce from needlessly going to waste each year. Question 3

Which of these is a fact?

D Ugly produce companies not only sell fruits and vegetables that may have been rejected by supermarkets, but they also deliver them right to customers' doorsteps. Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word forestall, as it is used in the Article?

C Avert

Question 5

The author probably wrote this Article in order to __________.

D Offer readers both sides of a debate about ugly produce start-ups, their intentions, and whether these companies are doing more harm than good Question 6

Which passage from the Article best supports the opinion that imperfect produce companies are only concerned with what's best for their own profits?

D Case in point: Many local farmers across the country had already been selling boxes of imperfect produce directly to consumers and farmers markets for years before the ugly produce companies started sprouting up. Critics complain that because the start-ups are able to provide a wide assortment of fruits and veggies from large farms around the country, it's gotten difficult for small farms to compete with these marketing machines—and the farmers are losing profits fast. Question 7

Which is the closest synonym for the word denounced, as it is used above? A Dispraised

Question 8

Based on the Article, which is most likely to happen?

B As more consumers start buying goods from ugly produce start-ups, some supermarkets may consider adding imperfect produce to their grocery aisles.

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Katherine the Great Answer key

Question 1

What is a cause and effect relationship that takes place in the Article?

B Because Katherine Johnson was proficient at math, she was hired as a "human computer" for NASA and earned a reputation for the accuracy of her calculations. Question 2

The best alternate headline for this Article would be __________.

A From Prodigy to Math Hero, Katherine Johnson's Life Is Proof That Anything Is Possible Question 3

Which of these had not yet happened when this Article was written?

A Katherine Johnson released an autobiography titled Reaching for the Moon. Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word conversant, as it is used in the Article?

C Acquainted Question 5

This Article would be most useful as a source for a student research project on __________.

C Groundbreaking women in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math Question 6

Based on the Article, the reader can infer that __________.

C Many young people, especially those who have experienced race or gender discrimination, will likely find Katherine Johnson's autobiography inspirational. Question 7

Which passage from the Article best supports the notion that Katherine Johnson's work at NASA was more important than most astronauts likely realized at the time?

C Without NASA's space program, which her calculations helped advance, we wouldn't have the technology necessary for things like satellite TV, sophisticated meteorology, and small computers (like laptops and iPhones). Question 8

Which would be the closest antonym for the word proficient, as it is used above?

D Incompetent

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The Last Generation? Answer key Question 1

What is a cause and effect relationship that takes place in the Article?

C Because Pacific Island countries contribute only a minor proportion of the world's carbon emissions, reducing air pollution on the islands is unlikely to significantly impact the amount of carbon worldwide. Question 2

The Article primarily discusses __________.

D the effect of climate change on the Pacific Island nations, and the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership, in which carbon-free technologies will be used to significantly reduce carbon emitted by cargo ships that deliver goods to the islands Question 3

Which is the closest synonym for the word vulnerable?

A susceptible Question 4

Which information is not in the Article?

A Why the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership includes only some of the countries that make up the Pacific Islands rather than all of them Question 5

Why did the author include this information? C To explain why the Pacific Island countries developed a plan for reducing carbon emissions from cargo ships rather

than emissions from other sources Question 6

Which is the closest antonym for the word disparate? D equivalent

Question 7

What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

C Countries that emit high levels of carbon cause negative consequences not only in their own backyards but around the entire world. Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the belief that the threat to the Pacific Islands resulting from climate change is critical?

D What if your home, and even the land it stood on, was gone forever? This isn't the plot of a fantasy movie or the premise of a video game—it's a painfully real possibility faced by people living in the Pacific Islands. Rising sea levels, due to the advent of climate change, threaten the very existence of these island nations, and young people whose families have deep roots on the islands are starting to wonder if they will be the last generation.

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A Musical Pioneer Answer key

Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

A Ofentse Pitse is the conductor and founder of Anchored Sound, an orchestra and youth choir that gives disadvantaged young singers with exceptional talent and big aspirations the chance to develop their gifts while performing the works of leading African composers. Question 2

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

C Ofentse Pitse never would have become a conductor of a classical orchestra and choir had her grandfather not been an accomplished trumpet player and jazz band conductor. Question 3

Why did the author include this passage?

C To show how Ofentse Pitse is trying to change people's conceptions of what constitutes classical music today Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word polymath?

A sage Question 5

What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

D Many of the young people in Ofentse Pitse's choir might not have been able to pursue their passion for music without her help. Question 6

Which information is not in the Article?

A How Ofentse Pitse felt when she directed her first combined orchestra and choir performance Question 7

In this passage, the word repertoire means __________.

B the songs that a performer or group of performers can play Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Ofentse Pitse's concerts feature classical music that some listeners might not be familiar with?

D What's on the program at an Anchored Sound performance? Audiences might get to hear pieces written by Mzilikazi Khumalo, Phelelani Mnomiya, or Sibusiso Njeza. If these names are new to you, you're not alone. At classical music concerts, it's more common to hear music written centuries ago by European composers like Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach, but Pitse wants listeners to know that classical music is alive and well in Africa, so the group's repertoire focuses on African composers.

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Otzi the Iceman Answer key

Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

A After being preserved for more than 5,000 years in a tomb of ice, Ötzi the Iceman is teaching the world about prehistoric life based on the food, tools, and accessories he carried, along with an analysis of his many health issues. Question 2

Why did the author include this information?

A To explain the significance of the discovery of Ötzi the Iceman's 5,300-year-old body in such immaculate condition Question 3

Which is the closest antonym for the word veritable?

A fictitious Question 4

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

A Ötzi is the most interesting archaeological find in history because the knowledge scientists are gaining from his discovery is unparalleled. Question 5

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Ötzi's injuries led to his untimely death?

B It had to have been rough going for Ötzi (pronounced OET-see) the Iceman those last few days of his life some 5,300 years ago. There he was, a 46-ish-year-old man about 5 feet and 2 inches and 110 pounds (158 centimeters and 50 kilograms), climbing up a steep mountain in what is now called the Ötztal Alps of northern Italy (hence his name). And, unfortunately, the poor guy was suffering from a blow to his head, a serious wound on his right hand, and an arrowhead lodged in his left shoulder. Question 6

Which is the closest synonym for the word retaliating?

B reciprocating Question 7

This Article would be most useful as a source for a student research project on __________.

A major scientific discoveries involving the late-Neolithic period Question 8

Based on the Article, which is most likely to happen next?

C Scientists will continue to examine Ötzi in hopes of making further groundbreaking discoveries about the Neolithic Age.

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Sniffing Out Extinction Answer key

Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

D Dogs have such an incredible sense of smell that they have been recruited as conservation detection specialists who use their noses to locate endangered species so that scientists can find these rare animals, breed them in captivity, and later release them into the wild. Question 2

According to the Article, why did conservationists at Zoos Victoria train two border collies to locate a critically endangered species using the scent of the animal?

A The conservationists have had great difficulty locating the endangered Baw Baw frogs because the animals aren't easily reached, seen, or heard in the wild Question 3

Why did the author include this passage?

C To explain why conservationists find it so difficult to locate the elusive Baw Baw frog in its natural habitat Question 4

Which two words are the closest synonyms?

B decimated and annihilated Question 5

What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

C Scientists find it more difficult to locate female Baw Baw frogs than males during the five or six weeks that the frogs' calls occur. Question 6

Which information is not in the Article?

A Which breed of dogs has proven to be the best at sniffing out certain illnesses Question 7

In this passage, the word elusive means __________.

C hard to find or capture Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that an animal might not continue to live on as a species without human intervention?

C Since 1980, problems stemming from climate change, non-native species, and a deadly fungus have decimated about 98 percent of the Baw Baw frog population. Now, fewer than 1,200 of them remain in the wild. Conservationists fear that unless the trend is reversed soon, these small brown amphibians will be extinct within the next 10 years. The problem is, finding Baw Baw frogs is no easy feat.

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Social Media, Pompeii Style Answer key

Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

B Just like today's social media users who post messages on cyber walls, the residents of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii posted messages on actual walls that survived for millennia after being buried in the rock and ash from the eruption of nearby volcano, Mount Vesuvius. Question 2

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

D It's advantageous for historical scholars to direct their studies of Pompeian messages to ones concerning political endorsem*nts and advice. Question 3

The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________. B describe both the reason for the destruction of the city of Pompeii and the reason that it remained so well

preserved Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word venerable?

A reputable Question 5

Suppose Camila wants to find out about the daily lives of the people who lived in Pompeii before its destruction. She would find most of her information __________.

A in a TV program titled "Everyday Life in the City of Pompeii" Question 6

In this passage, the word ascertain means __________. D to learn or find out information

Question 7

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that modern-day Facebook users have something in common with people who scrawled messages on walls in ancient Pompeii?

A So what messages did Pompeians write, exactly? In many ways, they were the same kinds of messages people write today on social media—opinions, grievances, pronouncements of love, consumer reviews, political endorsem*nts, recommendations, advertisem*nts, and advice. Question 8

Which information is not in the Article?

C Where the many residents of Pompeii fled to when they escaped the city

TH THA TH TH B - achieve3000.com - [PDF Document] (119)

Soldier in the Wild Answer key

Question 1

According to the Article, what happened as a result of Shoichi Yokoi's safe return to Japan after living so many years undetected in the wilds of Guam?

B Yokoi was given a hero's welcome in Tokyo as many of his contemporaries were deeply moved by his unwavering adherence to time-honored Japanese values. Question 2

What is this Article mainly about?

A Shoichi Yokoi, a former soldier in the Japanese Imperial Army, chose to remain in the jungles of Guam and live off the land from 1944 until his "capture" by two fishermen in January 1972. Question 3

Look at the events below. According to the Article, which of these happened third?

C Shoichi Yokoi attacked two fishermen who subsequently "captured" him and took him to the local authorities. Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word vainglorious?

A egotistical Question 5

What is one inference the reader can make from the Article?

D Shoichi Yokoi would have remained in hiding even longer had he not been "captured" by two fishermen while setting shrimp traps near Talofofo Falls. Question 6

Why did the author include this passage?

A To describe the range of public response to Yokoi's return to Japan in 1972 Question 7

In this passage, the word misconception means __________.

C a wrong or mistaken idea Question 8

Which information is not in the Article?

C How Shoichi Yokoi came to realize that World War II had ended years earlier

TH THA TH TH B - achieve3000.com - [PDF Document] (120)

Teen Pilot Breaks World Record Answer key

Question 1

What cause and effect relationship is described in this Article?

D Because of the bad weather Mason Andrews experienced throughout his solo flight around the world, the teen pilot encountered some frightening moments. Question 2

Which of these is most important to include in a summary of this Article?

D At age 18, Mason Andrews became the youngest solo pilot to circumnavigate the globe. Question 3

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

B Mason Andrews acted generously when he decided to use his trip to raise money for MedCamps of Louisiana, which offers summer camps for children with disabilities. Question 4

Which is the closest antonym for the word intrepid, as it is used in the Article?

D Apprehensive Question 5

The author probably wrote this Article in order to __________.

A Inform readers about an ambitious young man who worked diligently to achieve a challenging goal Question 6

Based on the Article, the reader can infer that __________.

D It is unlikely that Mason Andrews will stop dreaming big and attempting to achieve future goals now that he has flown solo around the world. Question 7

Which would be the closest synonym for the word diligently, as it is used above?

A Thoroughly Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Mason Andrews' parents had to be convinced to allow Mason to make a solo flight circumnavigating the world?

C Still, "I had to ask my dad three or four times before he was like, 'Alright, if we can find a way to come up with the money, we can do it,'" Mason recalled.

TH THA TH TH B - achieve3000.com - [PDF Document] (121)

The Truth About Dogs Answer key

Question 1

According to the Article, why do dogs smell the urine of other dogs?

B Smelling urine provides dogs with important information about when other dogs were in the area, where they were going, and whether the surroundings are safe. Question 2

Which of these is most important to include in a summary of this Article?

A The California Science Center is presenting its findings about canine behavior in an exhibition that will travel to museums across the country in 2020. Question 3

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

D Dogs are adorable when they lick our faces, give us a heart-melting look, or rush up to us the moment we come through the door. Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word affinity, as it is used in the Article?

C Affection Question 5

The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

C The strong bond between dogs and humans probably formed because the two species helped one another with survival Question 6

The author probably wrote this Article in order to __________.

C Present some of the findings on display at the California Science Center's canine exhibition Question 7

Which would be the closest synonym for the word eclipse, as it is used above?

B Surpass Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that the canine exhibition at the California Science Center attempts to show people how dogs experience the world?

AThe exhibition also has stations that allow people to see the way dogs see—with limited color vision, but a heightened motion sense.

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Welcome to Batuu Answer key

Question 1

What is this Article mainly about?

C In 2019, Disney opened Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge, the latest land in Disney's Hollywood Studios in Florida and at Disneyland in California where all aspects of the new attraction—its appearance, workers, food, and products—are exhaustively designed to induce the perception among visitors that they're genuinely exploring the alien planet of Batuu. Question 2

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

C Since rides are a primary source of entertainment and attraction for younger visitors, kids will have the most fun visiting Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge.

Question 3

The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________.

C emphasize that Galaxy's Edge was designed to ensure enjoyment for all visitors experiencing life on the planet of Batuu, regardless of their familiarity with Star Wars Question 4

Which is the closest synonym for the word meticulous?

B conscientious Question 5

The reader can infer from the Article that __________.

B Disney believes that Galaxy's Edge's popularity will draw enough visitors to their parks in California and Florida to justify their time and effort in developing the lands Question 6

This Article would be most useful as a source for a student research project on __________.

D strategies Disney uses to provide theme park visitors with unique and realistic experiences Question 7

Which is the closest antonym for the word stark?

A ornate Question 8

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that Disney wanted Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge to look like an actual planet to visitors?

A The forest where the Resistance hides out was inspired by Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona as well as locations in Morocco and Turkey, where crews took thousands of pictures for inspiration. Buildings got the same meticulous dedication, as some were built to look like leftovers from ancient cultures, while others were designed to appear new and stark against the antique relics, marking the emergence of the First Order and the Resistance.

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Women Adventurers Answer key

Question 1

According to the Article, which of these happened first?

B A French female botanist became the first woman in history to sail completely around the world. Question 2

Which of these is most important to include in a summary of the Article?

D In centuries past, women were expected to stay home and raise families, but that didn't stop three daring women from blazing trails of their own and embarking on some amazing adventures. Question 3

The author's purpose for writing this passage was to __________.

A suggest that Lady Hester Stanhope was a very convincing woman who refused to take "no" for an answer Question 4

Which of these is a statement of opinion?

C It wasn't wise for Jeanne Baret to disguise herself as a man on a voyage aboard the Étoile because it was almost certain she would have been found out sooner or later. Question 5

Which two words are the closest antonyms?

B indefatigable and lethargic Question 6

Which passage from the Article best supports the idea that women were not always publicly acknowledged for their significant contributions in the past?

D During the journey, Baret helped Commerson collect over 6,000 botanical specimens. And some historians credit her, and her alone, with discovering the bougainvillea plant in Brazil and bringing its seeds back to Europe. Even so, Commerson received all the credit. And when shipmates on the Étoile discovered that Jean was really Jeanne, it's believed that Commerson lied, proclaiming he'd been duped as well. To this day, 70 plants, insects, and mollusks bear Commerson's name only. Question 7

In this passage, the word moxie means __________.

A fortitude or determination Question 8

Which information is not in the Article?

A Who named a plant after Jeanne Baret two centuries after her death

TH THA TH TH B - achieve3000.com - [PDF Document] (2024)
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